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Gender wage differentials among rural–urban migrants in China

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  • Magnani, Elisabetta
  • Zhu, Rong

Abstract

This paper analyzes the gender wage differentials among rural–urban migrants in China using a nationally representative data set. On average, male migrants earn 30.2% more hourly wages than female migrants. The gender wage gap is not uniform across migrants' wage distribution, and wage differentials are found to be much higher at the top end than at the bottom and the middle of the wage distribution. Using newly developed methods, we decompose the distributional gender wage differentials among rural migrants into endowment effects, explained by differences in productivity characteristics, and discrimination effects attributable to unequal returns to covariates. We find that discrimination effects contribute more to the wage gap than endowment effects throughout the wage distribution. Although the raw gender wage differential is the largest at the higher end of migrants' wage distribution, our decomposition results show that the relative gender wage discrimination problem is most serious among low income migrants.

Suggested Citation

  • Magnani, Elisabetta & Zhu, Rong, 2012. "Gender wage differentials among rural–urban migrants in China," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(5), pages 779-793.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:regeco:v:42:y:2012:i:5:p:779-793
    DOI: 10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2011.08.001
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Hazarika, Bhabesh, 2017. "Decomposition of Gender Income Gap in Rural Informal Micro-enterprises: An Unconditional Quantile Approach in the Handloom Industry," Working Papers 17/216, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
    2. Jan Kluge & Michael Weber, 2015. "Decomposing the German East-West wage gap," ifo Working Paper Series 205, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    3. Qu, Zhaopeng & Zhao, Zhong, 2017. "Glass ceiling effect in urban China: Wage inequality of rural-urban migrants during 2002–2007," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 118-144.
    4. Ana C. Dammert & Beyza Ural Marchand, 2015. "Privatization In China: Technology And Gender In The Manufacturing Sector," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 33(2), pages 250-264, April.
    5. Messinis, George, 2013. "Returns to education and urban-migrant wage differentials in China: IV quantile treatment effects," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 39-55.
    6. Min Qin & James Brown & Sabu Padmadas & Li Bohua & Qi Jianan & Jane Falkingham, 2016. "Gender Inequalities in Employment and Wage-earning among Economic Migrants in Chinese Cities," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 34(6), pages 175-202, January.
    7. Zhu, Rong, 2016. "Wage differentials between urban residents and rural migrants in urban China during 2002–2007: A distributional analysis," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 2-14.
    8. repec:wsi:serxxx:v:62:y:2017:i:02:n:s021759081550071x is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Wenshu Gao & Russell Smyth, 2012. "Returns to Schooling in Urban China, 2001-2010: Evidence from Three Waves of the China Urban Labor Survey," Monash Economics Working Papers 50-12, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    10. Saari, M. Yusof & Rahman, M. Affan Abdul & Hassan, Azman & Habibullah, Muzafar Shah, 2016. "Estimating the impact of minimum wages on poverty across ethnic groups in Malaysia," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 490-502.
    11. Pamela Lenton & Lu Yin, 2016. "The Educational Success of China’s Young Generation of Rural-to-Urban Migrants," Working Papers 2016007, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics.
    12. Myoung-Jae Lee, 2015. "Reference parameters in Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition: Pooled-sample versus intercept-shift approaches," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 13(1), pages 69-82, March.
    13. Pan, Yao, 2016. "Understanding the rural and urban household saving rise in China," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 46-59.
    14. Sefa Awaworyi & Vinod Mishra, 2014. "Returns to Education in China: A Meta-analysis," Monash Economics Working Papers 41-14, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    15. Vahan Sargsyan, 2015. "Differential Treatment in the Chinese Labor Market. Is Hukou Type the Only Problem?," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp548, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Rural–urban migrants; Gender wage gap; Quantile decomposition;

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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