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The Evolution of Secularization: Cultural Transmission, Religion and Fertility Theory, Simulations and Evidence

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  • Bar-El, Ronen

    () (Open University of Israel)

  • García-Muñoz, Teresa

    () (Universidad de Granada)

  • Neuman, Shoshana

    () (Bar-Ilan University)

  • Tobol, Yossi

    () (Jerusalem College of Technology (JTC))

Abstract

This study presents an evolutionary process of secularization that integrates a theoretical model, simulations, and an empirical estimation that employs data from 32 countries (included in the International Social Survey Program: Religion II – ISSP, 1998). Following Bisin and Verdier (2000, 2001a), it is assumed that cultural/social norms are transmitted from one generation to the next one via two venues: (i) direct socialization – across generations, by parents; and (ii) oblique socialization – within generations, by the community and cultural environment. This paper focuses on the transmission of religious norms and in particular on the 'religious taste for children'. The theoretical framework describes the setting and the process leading to secularization of the population; the simulations give more insight into the process; and 'secularization regressions' estimate the effects of the various explanatory variables on secularization (that is measured by rare mass-attendance and by rare-prayer), lending support to corollaries derived from the theory and simulations. The main conclusions/findings are that (i) direct religious socialization efforts of one generation have a negative effect on secularization within the next generation; (ii) oblique socialization by the community has a parabolic effect on secularization; and (iii) the two types of socialization are complements in 'producing' religiosity of the next generation.

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  • Bar-El, Ronen & García-Muñoz, Teresa & Neuman, Shoshana & Tobol, Yossi, 2010. "The Evolution of Secularization: Cultural Transmission, Religion and Fertility Theory, Simulations and Evidence," IZA Discussion Papers 4980, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4980
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    Cited by:

    1. Matthias Opfinger, 2014. "Two Sides of a Medal: the Changing Relationship between Religious Diversity and Religiosity," Review of Social Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 72(4), pages 523-548, October.
    2. Stephen E. Spear & Warren Young, 2011. "MD Dialog on: Optimum Savings and Optimal Growth: the Cass-Malinvaud-Koopmans Nexus," Working Papers 2011-22, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    3. Klaus Prettner & Holger Strulik, 2017. "It's a Sin—Contraceptive Use, Religious Beliefs, and Long-run Economic Development," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(3), pages 543-566, August.
    4. Adi Schnytzer & Janez Šušteršič, 2011. "The Regression Tournament: A Novel Approach to Prediction Model Assessment," Working Papers 2011-10, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    5. Andrew T. Young & Daniel Levy, 2014. "Explicit Evidence of an Implicit Contract," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 30(4), pages 804-832.
    6. Adi Schnytzer & Barbara Luppi, 2008. "Painful Regret and Elation at the Track," Journal of Gambling Business and Economics, University of Buckingham Press, vol. 2(3), pages 85-99, December.
    7. Sagit Bar-Gill & Chaim Fershtman, 2016. "Integration policy: Cultural transmission with endogenous fertility," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 29(1), pages 105-133, January.
    8. Eyal Baharad & Jacob Goldberger & Moshe Koppel & Shmuel Nitzan, 2012. "Beyond Condorcet: optimal aggregation rules using voting records," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 72(1), pages 113-130, January.
    9. Gil Epstein & Alessandra Venturini, 2011. "The Impact of Worker Effort on Public Sentiment Towards Temporary Migrants," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1109, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    10. Lozano, Fernando A., 2012. "What Happened to God's Time? The Evolution of Secularism and Hours of Work in America, Evidence from Religious Holidays," IZA Discussion Papers 6552, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Teemu Lyytikäinen & Torsten Santavirta, 2013. "The effect of church tax on church membership," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(3), pages 1175-1193, July.
    12. repec:wly:quante:v:7:y:2016:i:3:p:969-995 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Brañas-Garza, Pablo & Espín, Antonio M. & Neuman, Shoshana, 2013. "Effects of religiosity on social behaviour: Experimental evidence from a representative sample of Spaniards," CEPR Discussion Papers 9709, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Cohen-Zada, Danny & Elder, Todd E., 2017. "Religious Pluralism and the Transmission of Religious Values through Education," IZA Discussion Papers 10569, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    15. Adi Schnytzer & Yisrael Schnytzer, 2011. "Animal Modeling of Earthquakes and Prediction Market," Working Papers 2011-20, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    16. Adi Schnytzer & Guy Weinberg, 2011. "Testing for Home Team and Favorite Biases in the Australian Rules Football Fixed Odds and Point Spread Betting Markets," Working Papers 2011-13, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    17. Sagit Bar-Gill & Chaim Fershtman, 2016. "Integration policy: Cultural transmission with endogenous fertility," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 29(1), pages 105-133, January.
    18. Arthur Fishman & Nadav Levy, 2011. "Search Costs and Risky Investment in Quality," Working Papers 2011-04, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    19. Teresa Garcia-Muñoz & Shoshana Neuman, 2013. "Bridges or buffers? Motives behind Immigrants’ Religiosity," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 2(1), pages 1-23, December.
    20. Eleonora Patacchini & Yves Zenou, 2016. "Social networks and parental behavior in the intergenerational transmission of religion," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 7(3), pages 969-995, November.
    21. Adi Schnytzer & Sara Westreich, 2011. "Information and Attitudes to Risk at the Track," Working Papers 2011-16, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    22. Andrew T. Young & Daniel Levy, 2014. "Explicit Evidence of an Implicit Contract," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 30(4), pages 804-832.
    23. García-Muñoz, Teresa & Neuman, Shoshana, 2012. "Is Religiosity of Immigrants a Bridge or a Buffer in the Process of Integration? A Comparative Study of Europe and the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 6384, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    cultural transmission; religion; fertility; secularization; ISSP;

    JEL classification:

    • C15 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Statistical Simulation Methods: General
    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities
    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • J11 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • Z12 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Religion

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