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The Evolution of Secularization: Cultural Transmission, Religion and Fertility Theory, Simulations and Evidence

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  • Ronen Bar-El

    (The Open University)

  • Teresa García-Muñoz

    (Universidad de Granada)

  • Shoshana Neuman

    () (Department of Economics, Bar Ilan University)

  • Yossef Tobol

    (Department of Economics, Bar Ilan University)

Abstract

This study presents an evolutionary process of secularization that integrates a theoretical model, simulations, and an empirical estimation that employs data from 32 countries (included in the International Social Survey Program: Religion II – ISSP, 1998). Following Bisin and Verdier (2000, 2001a), it is assumed that cultural/social norms are transmitted from one generation to the next one via two venues: (i) direct socialization – across generations, by parents; and (ii) oblique socialization – within generations, by the community and cultural environment. This paper focuses on the transmission of religious norms and in particular on the 'religious taste for children'. The theoretical framework describes the setting and the process leading to secularization of the population; the simulations give more insight into the process; and 'secularization regressions' estimate the effects of the various explanatory variables on secularization (that is measured by rare mass-attendance and by rare-prayer), lending support to corollaries derived from the theory and simulations. The main conclusions/findings are that (i) direct religious socialization efforts of one generation have a negative effect on secularization within the next generation; (ii) oblique socialization by the community has a parabolic effect on secularization; and (iii) the two types of socialization are complements in 'producing' religiosity of the next generation.

Suggested Citation

  • Ronen Bar-El & Teresa García-Muñoz & Shoshana Neuman & Yossef Tobol, 2010. "The Evolution of Secularization: Cultural Transmission, Religion and Fertility Theory, Simulations and Evidence," Working Papers 2010-10, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:biu:wpaper:2010-10
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    9. Arthur Fishman & Nadav Levy, 2011. "Search Costs and Risky Investment in Quality," Working Papers 2011-04, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    10. Matthias Opfinger, 2014. "Two Sides of a Medal: the Changing Relationship between Religious Diversity and Religiosity," Review of Social Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 72(4), pages 523-548, October.
    11. Brañas-Garza, Pablo & Espín, Antonio M. & Neuman, Shoshana, 2013. "Effects of religiosity on social behaviour: Experimental evidence from a representative sample of Spaniards," CEPR Discussion Papers 9709, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Sagit Bar-Gill & Chaim Fershtman, 2016. "Integration policy: Cultural transmission with endogenous fertility," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 29(1), pages 105-133, January.
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    16. Cohen-Zada, Danny & Elder, Todd E., 2017. "Religious Pluralism and the Transmission of Religious Values through Education," IZA Discussion Papers 10569, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    18. Stephen E. Spear & Warren Young, 2011. "MD Dialog on: Optimum Savings and Optimal Growth: the Cass-Malinvaud-Koopmans Nexus," Working Papers 2011-22, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    cultural transmission; religion; fertility; secularization; ISSP;

    JEL classification:

    • C15 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Statistical Simulation Methods: General
    • C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions; Probabilities
    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • J11 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • Z12 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Religion

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