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Age at Migration and Social Integration

Author

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  • Aslund, Olof

    (Uppsala University)

  • Böhlmark, Anders

    (SOFI, Stockholm University)

  • Nordström Skans, Oskar

    (Uppsala University)

Abstract

The paper studies childhood migrants and examines how age at migration affects their ensuing integration at the residential market, the labor market, and the marriage market. We use population-wide Swedish data and compare outcomes as adults among siblings arriving at different ages in order to ensure that the results can be given a causal interpretation. The results show that the children who arrived at a higher age had substantially lower shares of natives among their neighbors, coworkers and spouses as adults. The effects are mostly driven by higher exposure to immigrants of similar ethnic origin, in particular at the marriage market. We also find some effects on educational attainment, employment rates and wages, although these effects are much more limited in magnitude. We also analyze children of migrants and show that parents' time in the host country before child birth matters, which implies that the outcomes of the social integration process are inherited. Inherited integration has a particularly strong impact on the marriage patterns of females.

Suggested Citation

  • Aslund, Olof & Böhlmark, Anders & Nordström Skans, Oskar, 2009. "Age at Migration and Social Integration," IZA Discussion Papers 4263, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4263
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    Cited by:

    1. van den Berg, G. J & Lundborg P & Nystedt P & Rooth D, 2009. "Critical Periods During Childhood and Adolescence: A Study of Adult Height Among Immigrant Siblings," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 09/20, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
    2. Amelie F. Constant & Annabelle Krause & Ulf Rinne & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2017. "Reservation wages of first- and second-generation migrants," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(13), pages 945-949, July.
    3. Yao, Yuxin, 2017. "Essays on economics of language and family economics," Other publications TiSEM 0093bc8e-e869-4f87-8ff8-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    4. Synøve Nygaard Andersen & Torbjørn Skardhamar, 2012. "Age at immigration and crime. Findings for male immigrants in Norway," Discussion Papers 728, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    5. Aycan, Çelikaksoy & Lena, Nekby & Saman, Rashid, 2009. "Assortative Mating by Ethnic Background and Education in Sweden: The Role of Parental Composition on Partner Choice," SULCIS Working Papers 2009:7, Stockholm University, Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS.
    6. Helena Skyt Nielsen & Beatrice Schindler Rangvid, 2012. "The impact of parents’ years since migration on children’s academic achievement," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 1(1), pages 1-23, December.
    7. Yu, Yip-Ching & Nimeh, Zina, 2020. "Segmented paths of welfare assimilation," MERIT Working Papers 2020-036, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    8. Christopher D. Smith & Jonas Helgertz & Kirk Scott, 2016. "Parents’ years in Sweden and children’s educational performance," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-17, December.
    9. Lemmermann, Dominique & Riphahn, Regina T., 2018. "The causal effect of age at migration on youth educational attainment," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 78-99.
    10. Yao, Y. & van Ours, J.C., 2015. "Language Skills and Labor Market Performance of Immigrants in the Netherlands," Other publications TiSEM 8df5e344-eb4e-4c90-9429-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    11. Åslund, Olof & Böhlmark, Anders & Skans, Oskar Nordström, 2015. "Childhood and family experiences and the social integration of young migrants," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 135-144.
    12. Honkaniemi, Helena & Juárez, Sol Pía & Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal & Rostila, Mikael, 2020. "Psychological distress by age at migration and duration of residence in Sweden," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 250(C).
    13. Caroline Berchet & Nicolas Sirven, 2012. "Cross-Country Performance in Social Integration of Older Migrants. A European Perspective," Working Papers DT46, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Mar 2012.
    14. Marina Gindelsky, 2019. "Testing the acculturation of the 1.5 generation in the United States: Is there a “critical” age of migration?," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 31-65, March.
    15. Chen, Lijuan & Guo, Wei & Liu, Miaomiao, 2021. "Childhood migration and work motivation in Adulthood: Evidence from China," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 481-490.
    16. Katz, Katarina & Österberg, Torun, 2013. "Wages of childhood immigrants in Sweden – education, returns to education and overeducation," Working Paper Series 2013:8, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
    17. Christopher D. Smith & Jonas Helgertz & Kirk Scott, 2019. "Time and Generation: Parents’ Integration and Children’s School Performance in Sweden, 1989–2011," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 35(4), pages 719-750, October.
    18. Anna Oksuzyan & Sven Drefahl & Jennifer Caputo & Siddartha Aradhya, 2020. "Is it better to intermarry? Ethnic composition of marriages and suicide risk among native-born and migrant persons in Sweden," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2020-026, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
    19. Yao, Yuxin & van Ours, Jan C., 2015. "Language skills and labor market performance of immigrants in the Netherlands," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 76-85.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    age at migration; segregation; integration; immigration; siblings;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J01 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics: General

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