State Dependence in Canadian Welfare Participation
This paper analyzes transitions into and out-of Social Assistance in Canada. We estimate a dynamic Probit model, controlling for endogenous initial conditions and unobserved heterogeneity, using longitudinal data extracted from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) for the years 1993-2000. The data indicates that there are substantial provincial differences in social assistance participation. The empirical results indicate that a “welfare trap” does exist in Canada, but the extent of it varies across provinces. The results also suggest that there is a link between provincial variations in structural and spurious state dependence and regional differences in welfare generosity. In particular, the existence of structural state dependence, or a “welfare trap”, appears to be more likely in provinces with relatively high benefit levels. One implication of this result is that a change in the welfare benefit structure is not likely to lower participation as significantly among less generous provinces as more generous ones.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: Research in Labor Economics, 2014, 39, 81-105|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Keane, Michael P, 1994. "A Computationally Practical Simulation Estimator for Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(1), pages 95-116, January.
- Stephen V. Cameron & James J. Heckman, 2001. "The Dynamics of Educational Attainment for Black, Hispanic, and White Males," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(3), pages 455-499, June.
- Robert A. Moffitt, 1999. "The Effect of Pre-PRWORA Waivers on AFDC Caseloads and Female Earnings, Income, and Labor Force Behavior," JCPR Working Papers 89, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
- Rebecca M. Blank, 2002.
"Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 40(4), pages 1105-1166, December.
- Lee, Lung-Fei, 1997.
"Simulated maximum likelihood estimation of dynamic discrete choice statistical models some Monte Carlo results,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 1-35.
- Lee, L.F., 1994. "Simulated Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Dynamic Discrete Choice Statistical Models--Some Monte Carlo Results," Papers 94-06, Michigan - Center for Research on Economic & Social Theory.
- Curtis Eberwein & John C. Ham & Robert J. Lalonde, 1997. "The Impact of Being Offered and Receiving Classroom Training on the Employment Histories of Disadvantaged Women: Evidence from Experimental Data," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(4), pages 655-682.
- Enberg, John & Gottschalk, Peter & Wolf, Douglas, 1990. "A random-effects logit model of work-welfare transitions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1-2), pages 63-75.
- Blank, Rebecca M., 1989. "Analyzing the length of welfare spells," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 245-273, August.
- Dean R. Hyslop, 1999. "State Dependence, Serial Correlation and Heterogeneity in Intertemporal Labor Force Participation of Married Women," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(6), pages 1255-1294, November.
- Barrett, Garry F., 2000. "The effect of educational attainment on welfare dependence: Evidence from Canada," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 209-232, August.
- Bernard Fortin & Denis Fougère & Guy Lacroix, 2000. "The Effects of Welfare Benefits on the Duration of Welfare Spells : Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Canada," Working Papers 2000-14, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
- Jorgen Hansen & Magnus Lofstrom, 2009.
"The dynamics of immigrant welfare and labor market behavior,"
Journal of Population Economics,
Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 22(4), pages 941-970, October.
- Hansen, Jörgen & Löfström, Magnus, 2001. "The Dynamics of Immigrant Welfare and Labour Market Behaviour," CEPR Discussion Papers 3028, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Hansen, Jörgen & Lofstrom, Magnus, 2001. "The Dynamics of Immigrant Welfare and Labor Market Behavior," IZA Discussion Papers 360, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Kapsalis, Costa, 2001. "An Assessment of EI and SA Reporting in SLID," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2001166e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2266. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.