Poverty Persistence in Sweden
This paper analyzes the persistence of poverty in Sweden using a hazard rate model based on multiple spells. The model also accounts for unobserved heterogeneity and possibly endogenous initial conditions. We estimate the model on a large representative Swedish panel data set, LINDA, for the years 1991 to 2001. The data contains precise information on household disposable income obtained from individual tax files. Poverty is defined using information on annual minimum needs standards determined by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. The data indicates that poverty rates are highest for immigrants, especially refugee immigrants, and for households with children. Further, poverty rates declined, both for natives and for immigrants, between 1991 and 2001, partly as a result of improved labor market conditions. The empirical results suggest that there is significant negative duration dependence in both exit and entry hazard rates. Moreover, the transition rates are significantly affected by immigrant status, educational attainment, labor market conditions, age, and family status. Accounting for multiple spells shows that for two-parent families with two children who are represented by a male person, 44 percent of native households that falls into poverty at any given point in time remain poor in five or more out of the next ten years. For refugee and non-refugee households, the figures are 62 percent and 50 percent, respectively.
|Date of creation:||Jul 2004|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Edin, P.-A. & Fredriksson, P., 2000.
"LINDA - Longitudinal INdividual DAta for Sweden,"
2000:19, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
- Edin, P.-A. & Fredriksson, P., 2000. "LINDA - Longitudinal INdividual DAta for Sweden," Papers 2000-19, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
- Edin, Per-Anders & Fredriksson, Peter, 2000. "LINDA - Longitudinal INdividual DAta for Sweden," Working Paper Series 2000:19, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
- Lorenzo Cappellari & Stephen P. Jemkins, 2002. "Who Stays Poor? Who Becomes Poor? Evidence from the British Household Panel Survey," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(478), pages C60-C67, March.
- Lillard, Lee A & Willis, Robert J, 1978.
"Dynamic Aspects of Earning Mobility,"
Econometric Society, vol. 46(5), pages 985-1012, September.
- Ham, John C & LaLonde, Robert J, 1996. "The Effect of Sample Selection and Initial Conditions in Duration Models: Evidence from Experimental Data on Training," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(1), pages 175-205, January.
- Stephen V. Cameron & James J. Heckman, 2001. "The Dynamics of Educational Attainment for Black, Hispanic, and White Males," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(3), pages 455-499, June.
- Francesco Devicienti, 2001.
"Estimating Poverty Persistence in Britain,"
LABORatorio R. Revelli Working Papers Series
1, LABORatorio R. Revelli, Centre for Employment Studies.
- Devicienti, Francesco, 2002. "Estimating Poverty Persistence in Britain," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 61, Royal Economic Society.
- Francesco Devicienti, 2001. "Estimating Poverty Persistence in Britain," 10th International Conference on Panel Data, Berlin, July 5-6, 2002 B2-3, International Conferences on Panel Data.
- Curtis Eberwein & John C. Ham & Robert J. Lalonde, 1997. "The Impact of Being Offered and Receiving Classroom Training on the Employment Histories of Disadvantaged Women: Evidence from Experimental Data," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(4), pages 655-682.
- Hansen, Jörgen & Lofstrom, Magnus, 2001.
"The Dynamics of Immigrant Welfare and Labor Market Behavior,"
IZA Discussion Papers
360, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Jorgen Hansen & Magnus Lofstrom, 2009. "The dynamics of immigrant welfare and labor market behavior," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 22(4), pages 941-970, October.
- Hansen, Jörgen & Löfström, Magnus, 2001. "The Dynamics of Immigrant Welfare and Labour Market Behaviour," CEPR Discussion Papers 3028, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Martin Biewen, 2003.
"Who Are the Chronic Poor?: Evidence on the Extent and the Composition of Chronic Poverty in Germany,"
Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin
350, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Biewen, Martin, 2003. "Who Are the Chronic Poor? Evidence on the Extent and the Composition of Chronic Poverty in Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 779, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ross Finnie & Arthur Sweetman, 2003. "Poverty dynamics: empirical evidence for Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 36(2), pages 291-325, May.
- Mary Jo Bane & David T. Ellwood, 1986. "Slipping into and out of Poverty: The Dynamics of Spells," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(1), pages 1-23.
- Heckman, James & Singer, Burton, 1984. "A Method for Minimizing the Impact of Distributional Assumptions in Econometric Models for Duration Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(2), pages 271-320, March.
- Stevens, Ann Huff, 1994. "The Dynamics of Poverty Spells: Updating Bane and Ellwood," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 34-37, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1209. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.