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Expectations, Learning, and the Changing Relationship between Oil Prices and the Macroeconomy

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  • Fabio Milani

    () (Department of Economics, University of California-Irvine)

Abstract

This paper estimates a structural general equilibrium model to investigate the changing relationship between the oil price and macroeconomic variables. The oil price, through the role of oil in production and consumption, affects aggregate demand and supply in the model. The assumption of rational expectations is relaxed in favor of learning. Oil prices, therefore, affect the economy through an additional channel, i.e. through their effect on the formation of agents' beliefs. The estimated learning dynamics indicates that economic agents' perceptions about the effects of oil prices on the economy have changed over time: oil prices were perceived to have large effects on output and inflation in the 1970s, but only milder effects after the mid-1980s. Since expectations play a large role in the determination of output and inflation, the effects of oil price increases on expectations can magnify the response of macroeconomic variables to oil price shocks. In the estimated model, in fact, the implied responses of output and inflation to oil price shocks were much more pronounced in the 1970s than in 2008. Therefore, through the time variation in the impact of oil prices on beliefs, the paper can successfully explain the observed weakening of the effects of oil price shocks on real activity and inflation.

Suggested Citation

  • Fabio Milani, 2009. "Expectations, Learning, and the Changing Relationship between Oil Prices and the Macroeconomy," Working Papers 080923, University of California-Irvine, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:irv:wpaper:080923
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Fabio Milani, 2011. "Expectation Shocks and Learning as Drivers of the Business Cycle," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(552), pages 379-401, May.
    2. Usama Almulali & Che Normee Binti Che Sab, 2013. "Exploring the impact of oil revenues on OPEC members' macroeconomy," OPEC Energy Review, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, vol. 37(4), pages 416-428, December.
    3. Oluwole Alfred Olatunji, 2010. "The impact of oil price regimes on construction cost in Nigeria," Construction Management and Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(7), pages 747-759.
    4. Fabio Milani, 2012. "The Modeling of Expectations in Empirical DSGE Models: a Survey," Working Papers 121301, University of California-Irvine, Department of Economics.
    5. repec:eee:eneeco:v:66:y:2017:i:c:p:547-558 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Ge, Feng-Long & Fan, Ying, 2013. "A system dynamics model of coordinated development of central and provincial economy and oil enterprises," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 41-51.
    7. Marco Lorusso & Luca Pieroni, 2015. "Causes and Consequences of Oil Price Shocks on the UK Economy," CEERP Working Paper Series 002, Centre for Energy Economics Research and Policy, Heriot-Watt University, revised Nov 2015.
    8. Yin, Libo & Yang, Qingyuan, 2016. "Predicting the oil prices: Do technical indicators help?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 338-350.
    9. Malliaris, A.G. & Kyrtsou, C., 2009. "Editorial introduction of the special issue: "Energy sector pricing and macroeconomic dynamics"," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 825-826, November.
    10. Behmiri, Niaz Bashiri & Pires Manso, José Ramos, 2014. "The linkage between crude oil consumption and economic growth in Latin America: The panel framework investigations for multiple regions," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 233-241.
    11. Kyrtsou, Catherine & Mikropoulou, Christina & Papana, Angeliki, 2016. "Does the S&P500 index lead the crude oil dynamics? A complexity-based approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 239-246.
    12. repec:eee:ecmode:v:72:y:2018:i:c:p:223-236 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Ali Ahmed, Huson Joher & Wadud, I.K.M. Mokhtarul, 2011. "Role of oil price shocks on macroeconomic activities: An SVAR approach to the Malaysian economy and monetary responses," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 8062-8069.
    14. Carlos Pinho & Mara Madaleno, 2016. "Oil prices and stock returns: nonlinear links across sectors," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer;Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, vol. 15(2), pages 79-97, August.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Oil price; Inflation expectations; Learning; Monetary policy; Effect of energy shocks; Bayesian estimation;

    JEL classification:

    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies

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