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Die Rolle der Computerisierung und Digitalisierung für Beschäftigung und Einkommen

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  • Thomsen, Stephan L

Abstract

Die Entwicklung der Computer und die darauf aufbauende Digitalisierung haben technologische Veränderungen ausgelöst, die die Anforderungen an und die Nachfrage nach Arbeit, aber auch das Arbeitsangebot in den letzten Dekaden stetig verändert haben. Wie groß die kausalen Effekte dieser Entwicklung auf die Einkommens- und Vermögensverteilung sind, ist in der ökonomischen Literatur bisher weder eindeutig, noch abschließend geklärt. Schwierigkeiten in der Bestimmung dieser Effekte haben sich zunächst aus dem unvollständigen Verständnis ergeben, wie die Computerisierung und die Digitalisierung die Wertschöpfung beeinflusst haben bzw. welchen Beitrag sie leisten. Dies hat zugleich zu der grundsätzlichen Frage geführt, inwiefern der technologische Wandel durch die Computerisierung und Digitalisierung mit traditionellen ökonomischen Modellen, die Arbeit, Kapital und technischen Fortschritt in der Regel als trennbare Faktoren unterscheiden und hierbei feste Relationen bzw. proportionale Effekte unterstellen, erfasst werden kann. Das Verständnis der Bedeutung und Begründung technischen Fortschritts in seinen Wirkungen für Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft ist dabei bereits Gegenstand des wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Denkens in Wealth of Nations von Adam Smith (1776). Die Formulierung des Produktionsprozesses ausgehend von den zu tätigenden Aufgaben, unabhängig ob diese durch menschliche oder maschinelle Arbeit, durch Handel zugekauft oder an einem beliebigen Ort durchgeführt werden, ist dabei grundlegend im ökonomischen Verständnis verankert. Trotz dieser bereits recht alten Überlegungen haben die Computerisierung und die Digitalisierung dazu geführt, dass der durch sie ausgelöste technische Fortschritt sowie insbesondere die implizierten Folgen für Beschäftigung und Löhne in der aktuellen wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Literatur nun differenzierter analysiert werden und in den vergangenen zwei Dekaden entsprechende formale Modelle entwickelt worden sind. Mit dem vorliegenden Aufsatz möchte ich eine Einordnung des technischen Fortschritts durch die Computerisierung und Digitalisierung geben. Hierzu will ich kurz auf die Entwicklungsgeschichte des Computerzeitalters eingehen, um Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede zu anderen Entwicklungen zu identifizieren. Im Anschluss gebe ich einen Überblick über den Erkenntnisstand zu den Effekten auf Einkommen und Beschäftigung auf Grundlage der verfügbaren Literatur, um die Erklärungen und Begründungen zu diskutieren.

Suggested Citation

  • Thomsen, Stephan L, 2018. "Die Rolle der Computerisierung und Digitalisierung für Beschäftigung und Einkommen," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-645, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
  • Handle: RePEc:han:dpaper:dp-645
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    Keywords

    Computerisierung; Digitalisierung; Ideengeschichte;

    JEL classification:

    • A10 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - General
    • B20 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought since 1925 - - - General

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