IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Agglomeration and New Establishment Survival: A Mixed Hierarchical and Cross-Classified Model

  • Burger, M.J.
  • van Oort, F.G.
  • Raspe, O.

Recent empirical studies in regional science and urban economics show that agglomeration economies may be one source of the uneven distribution of economic activities and economic growth across cities and regions. At the same time, the body of research into the importance of agglomeration economies for the performance of firms is still growing. Such development is necessary, as the theories that underlie agglomeration economies are microeconomic in nature, but still insufficiently understood. In this study, we focus on the determinants of survival among new establishments in the advanced producer services sector in the Netherlands. Employing a mixed hierarchical and cross-classified probit regression, we introduce a model of establishment survival that is specific to characteristics of the internal and external environment of the establishment. Controlling for firm and sector characteristics, we conclude that location accounts for about 4% of the variance in the probability of survival of new establishments. We also find that localization and urbanization economies have a positive effect on the survival of new establishments. However, new establishments with large start-up sizes appear to profit more from agglomeration economies than new establishments with small start-up sizes.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Our checks indicate that this address may not be valid because: 500 Can't connect to If this is indeed the case, please notify (RePub)

Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam in its series ERIM Report Series Research in Management with number ERS-2010-018-ORG.

in new window

Date of creation: 28 Apr 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ems:eureri:19519
Contact details of provider: Postal: RSM Erasmus University & Erasmus School of Economics, PoBox 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam
Phone: 31-10-408 1182
Fax: 31-10-408 9020
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Combes, Pierre-Philippe & Duranton, Gilles & Gobillon, Laurent, 2008. "Spatial wage disparities: Sorting matters!," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 723-742, March.
  2. Erik Stam, 2005. "The Geography Of Gazelles In The Netherlands," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, vol. 96(1), pages 121-127, 02.
  3. Pierre-Philippe Combes & Thierry Magnac & Jean-Marc Robin, 2003. "The Dynamics of Local Employment in France," Working Papers 2003-15, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  4. Stuart S. Rosenthal & William C. Strange, 2003. "Geography, Industrial Organization, and Agglomeration," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 56, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  5. Brülhart, Marius & Traeger, Rolf, 2003. "An Account of Geographic Concentration Patterns in Europe," HWWA Discussion Papers 226, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
  6. Roderik Ponds & Frank van Oort & Koen Frenken, 2007. "The geographical and institutional proximity of research collaboration," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(3), pages 423-443, 08.
  7. Schmalensee, Richard., 1984. "Do markets differ much?," Working papers 1531-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
  8. Philippe Martin & Thierry Mayer & Florian Mayneris, 2008. "Spatial Concentration and Firm-Level Productivity in France," Sciences Po publications 6858, Sciences Po.
  9. Pierre-Philippe Combes & Thierry Magnac & Jean-Marc Robin, 2004. "The dynamics of local employment in France," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00279073, HAL.
  10. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
  11. Henri L.F. de Groot & Jacques Poot & Martijn J. Smit, 2008. "Agglomeration Externalities, Innovation and Regional Growth: Theoretical Perspectives and Meta-Analysis," Working Papers in Economics 08/01, University of Waikato, Department of Economics.
  12. Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
  13. Maryellen Kelley & Susan Helper, 1999. "Firm Size And Capabilities, Regional Agglomeration, And The Adoption Of New Technology," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1-2), pages 79-103.
  14. Helsley, Robert W. & Strange, William C., 1990. "Matching and agglomeration economies in a system of cities," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 189-212, September.
  15. Henderson, J. Vernon, 2003. "Marshall's scale economies," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 1-28, January.
  16. MION, Giordano & NATICCHIONI, Paolo, 2006. "The spatial sorting and matching of skills and firms," CORE Discussion Papers 2006099, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  17. Marius BRÜLHART & Nicole A. MATHYS, 2007. "Sectoral Agglomeration Economies in a Panel of European Regions," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 07.04, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
  18. Audretsch, David B & Feldman, Maryann P, 1998. "Innovation in Cities: Science-Based Diversity, Specialization and Localized Competition," CEPR Discussion Papers 1980, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  19. Koen Frenken & Frank Van Oort & Thijs Verburg, 2007. "Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Regional Economic Growth," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(5), pages 685-697.
  20. Philippe Martin & Gianmarco Ottaviano, 2001. "Growth and Agglomeration," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00179826, HAL.
  21. Acs, Zoltan J. & Armington, Catherine, 2004. "The impact of geographic differences in human capital on service firm formation rates," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 244-278, September.
  22. Enrico Santarelli & Marco Vivarelli, 2007. "Entrepreneurship and the process of firms’ entry, survival and growth," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(3), pages 455-488, June.
  23. Frank G. van Oort, 2007. "Spatial and sectoral composition effects of agglomeration economies in the Netherlands," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 86(1), pages 5-30, 03.
  24. Marina Doroshenko & Ian Miles & Dmitry Vinogradov, 2014. "Knowledge Intensive Business Services: The Russian Experience," Foresight-Russia, National Research University Higher School of Economics, vol. 8(4), pages 24-39.
  25. James J. Heckman, 1976. "The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 5, number 4, pages 475-492 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  26. Phillip Arestis & Michelle Baddeley & John S.L. McCombie (ed.), 2007. "Economic Growth," Books, Edward Elgar, number 3958, April.
  27. N Bullen & K Jones & C Duncan, 1997. "Modelling complexity: analysing between-individual and between-place variation -- a multilevel tutorial," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 29(4), pages 585-609, April.
  28. J. Vernon Henderson & Ari Kuncoro & Matthew Turner, 1992. "Industrial Development in Cities," NBER Working Papers 4178, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. Combes, Pierre-Philippe, 2000. "Economic Structure and Local Growth: France, 1984-1993," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 329-355, May.
  30. Geroski, P. A., 1995. "What do we know about entry?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 421-440, December.
  31. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-37, October.
  32. Glaeser, Edward L & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(6), pages 1126-52, December.
    • Edward L. Glaeser & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1991. "Growth in Cities," NBER Working Papers 3787, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    • Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Kallal, Hedi D. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Scholarly Articles 3451309, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  33. David B. Audretsch & Dirk Dohse, 2007. "Location: A Neglected Determinant of Firm Growth," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 143(1), pages 79-107, April.
  34. Martin, Philippe & Ottaviano, Gianmarco, 1996. "Growth and Agglomeration," CEPR Discussion Papers 1529, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    • Martin, Philippe & Ottaviano, Gianmarco I P, 2001. "Growth and Agglomeration," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 42(4), pages 947-68, November.
  35. Katz, Michael L & Shapiro, Carl, 1985. "Network Externalities, Competition, and Compatibility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(3), pages 424-40, June.
  36. John M. Quigley, 1998. "Urban Diversity and Economic Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(2), pages 127-138, Spring.
  37. Audretsch, David B. & Mata, Jose, 1995. "The post-entry performance of firms: Introduction," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 413-419, December.
  38. Robert J Bennett & Colin Smith, 2002. "The influence of location and distance on the supply of business advice," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 34(2), pages 251-270, February.
  39. Burger, M.J. & van Oort, F.G. & van der Knaap, G.A., 2008. "A Treatise on the Geographical Scale of Agglomeration Externalities and the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2008-076-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ems:eureri:19519. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (RePub)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.