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Policy Evolution under the Clean Air Act

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  • Schmalensee, Richard

    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

  • Stavins, Robert N.

    (Harvard Kennedy School)

Abstract

The U.S. Clean Air Act, passed in 1970 with strong bipartisan support, was the first environmental law to give the Federal government a serious regulatory role, established the architecture of the U.S. air pollution control system, and became a model for subsequent environmental laws in the United States and globally. We outline the Act's key provisions, as well as the main changes Congress has made to it over time. We assess the evolution of air pollution control policy under the Clean Air Act, with particular attention to the types of policy instruments used. We provide a generic assessment of the major types of policy instruments, and we trace and assess the historical evolution of EPA's policy instrument use, with particular focus on the increased use of market-based policy instruments, beginning in the 1970s and culminating in the 1990s. Over the past fifty years, air pollution regulation has gradually become much more complex, and over the past twenty years, policy debates have become increasingly partisan and polarized, to the point that it has become impossible to amend the Act or pass other legislation to address the new threat of climate change.

Suggested Citation

  • Schmalensee, Richard & Stavins, Robert N., 2018. "Policy Evolution under the Clean Air Act," Working Paper Series rwp18-039, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecl:harjfk:rwp18-039
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Brian C. Murray & William H. Niver, 2020. "A 21st Century Low‐Carbon Transition in U.S. Electric Power: Extent, Contributing Factors, and Implications," Review of Policy Research, Policy Studies Organization, vol. 37(3), pages 412-438, May.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General
    • Q48 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Government Policy
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • Q58 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Government Policy

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