The policy challenges of tradable credits: A critical review of eight markets
This article offers a critical review of eight tradable permit markets: water permits at Fox River, Wisconsin; the U.S. leaded gasoline phase-out; sulfur dioxide credits under the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990; the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) for controlling ozone and acid rain in Southern California; renewable energy credit trading at the regional level in the United States; individual transferrable quotas for fisheries at the national level in New Zealand; carbon credits traded under the European Union-Emissions Trading Scheme; and carbon offsets permitted under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. By "critical" the article does not fully weigh the costs and benefits of each tradable credit scheme and instead identifies key challenges and problems. By "review" the author relied exclusively on secondary data from an interdisciplinary review of the academic literature. Rather than performing as economic theory suggests, the article shows that in many cases credit markets are prone to compromises in program design, transaction costs, price volatility, leakage, and environmental degradation. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these problems for those seeking to design more equitable and effective public policies addressing environmental degradation and climate change.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Lata Gangadharan, 2000. "Transaction Costs in Pollution Markets: An Empirical Study," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 76(4), pages 601-614.
- Cropper, Maureen L & Oates, Wallace E, 1992. "Environmental Economics: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(2), pages 675-740, June.
- Wiser, Ryan & Namovicz, Christopher & Gielecki, Mark & Smith, Robert, 2007. "The Experience with Renewable Portfolio Standards in the United States," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 8-20, May.
- J. H. Dales, 1968. "Land, Water, and Ownership," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 1(4), pages 791-804, November.
- Thomas Klier & Richard Mattoon & Michael Prager, 1997. "A Mixed Bag: Assessmentof Market Performance and Firm Trading Behaviour in the NOx Reclaim Programme," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(6), pages 751-774.
- Jane V. Hall & Amy L. Walton, 1996. "A Case Study In Pollution Markets: Dismal Science Vs. Dismal Reality," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 14(2), pages 67-78, 04.
- Ragwitz, Mario & del Río González, Pablo & Resch, Gustav, 2009. "Assessing the advantages and drawbacks of government trading of guarantees of origin for renewable electricity in Europe," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 300-307, January.
- Joskow, Paul L & Schmalensee, Richard & Bailey, Elizabeth M, 1998. "The Market for Sulfur Dioxide Emissions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 669-85, September.
- Kerr, Suzi & Sanchirico, James & Newell, Richard, 2002.
"Fishing Quota Markets,"
dp-02-20, Resources For the Future.
- O Fromm & B Hansj�rgens, 1996. "Emission trading in theory and practice: an analysis of RECLAIM in Southern California," Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 14(3), pages 367-384, June.
- Stavins, Robert, 1997. "Policy Instruments for Climate Change: How Can National Governments Address a Global Problem?," Discussion Papers dp-97-11, Resources For the Future.
- Richard Schmalensee & Paul L. Joskow & A. Denny Ellerman & Juan Pablo Montero & Elizabeth M. Bailey, 1998. "An Interim Evaluation of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(3), pages 53-68, Summer.
- McGarvey, Richard, 2003. "Demand-side fishery management: integrating two forms of input control," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 207-218, May.
- Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Cooper, Christopher, 2007. "Big Is Beautiful: The Case for Federal Leadership on a National Renewable Portfolio Standard," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 48-61, May.
- Atkinson, Scott & Tietenberg, Tom, 1991. "Market failure in incentive-based regulation: The case of emissions trading," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 17-31, July.
- Joskow, Paul L & Schmalensee, Richard, 1998. "The Political Economy of Market-Based Environmental Policy: The U.S. Acid Rain Program," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 37-83, April.
- Ford, Andrew & Vogstad, Klaus & Flynn, Hilary, 2007. "Simulating price patterns for tradable green certificates to promote electricity generation from wind," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 91-111, January.
- Kerr, Suzi & Newell, Richard, 2001.
"Policy-Induced Technology Adoption: Evidence from the U.S. Lead Phasedown,"
dp-01-14, Resources For the Future.
- Suzi Kerr & Richard G. Newell, 2003. "Policy-Induced Technology Adoption: Evidence from the U.S. Lead Phasedown," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 317-343, 09.
- Montgomery, W. David, 1972. "Markets in licenses and efficient pollution control programs," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 395-418, December.
- Solomon, Barry D., 1999. "New directions in emissions trading: the potential contribution of new institutional economics," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 371-387, September.
- Scott Lee Johnson & David M. Pekelney, 1996. "Economic Assessment of the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market: A New Emissions Trading Program for Los Angeles," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 72(3), pages 277-297.
- David Calef & Robert Goble, 2007. "The allure of technology: How France and California promoted electric and hybrid vehicles to reduce urban air pollution," Policy Sciences, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 1-34, March.
- Rose, Kenneth, 1995. "Twelve common myths of allowance trading: Improving the level of discussion," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 64-69, May.
- Parzival Copes, 1986. "A Critical Review of the Individual Quota as a Device in Fisheries Management," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 62(3), pages 278-291.
- Shaul Ben-David & David Brookshire & Stuart Burness & Michael McKee & Christian Schmidt, 2000. "Attitudes toward Risk and Compliance in Emission Permit Markets," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 76(4), pages 590-600.
- Foster, Vivien & Hahn, Robert W, 1995. "Designing More Efficient Markets: Lessons from Los Angeles Smog Control," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(1), pages 19-48, April.
- Hahn, Robert W & Noll, Roger G, 1990. " Enviromental Markets in the Year 2000," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 3(4), pages 351-67, December.
- Sanchirico, James N. & Holland, Daniel & Quigley, Kathryn & Fina, Mark, 2006. "Catch-quota balancing in multispecies individual fishing quotas," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 767-785, November.
- Richard J. Mccann, 1996. "Environmental Commodities Markets: 'Messy' Versus 'Ideal' Worlds," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 14(3), pages 85-97, 07.
- Dale A. Carlson & Anne M. Sholtz, 1994. "Designing Pollution Market Instruments: Cases Of Uncertainty," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 12(4), pages 114-125, October.
- Bonnie G. Colby, 2000. "Cap-and-Trade Policy Challenges: A Tale of Three Markets," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 76(4), pages 638-658.
- Hahn, Robert W, 1989. "Economic Prescriptions for Environmental Problems: How the Patient Followed the Doctor's Orders," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 95-114, Spring.
- Berendt, Christopher B., 2006. "A State-Based Approach to Building a Liquid National Market for Renewable Energy Certificates: The REC-EX Model," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 54-68, June.
- Stephen Bernow & Sivan Kartha & Michael Lazarus & Tom Page, 2001. "Cleaner generation, free-riders, and environmental integrity: clean development mechanism and the power sector," Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(2), pages 229-249, June.
- Tom Tietenberg, 2003. "The Tradable-Permits Approach to Protecting the Commons: Lessons for Climate Change," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(3), pages 400-419.
- Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2010. "Building Umbrellas or Arks? Three Alternatives to Carbon Credits and Offsets," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 29-40, March.
- Noll, Roger G, 1982. "Implementing Marketable Emissions Permits," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(2), pages 120-24, May.
- Florini, Ann & Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2009. "Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5239-5248, December.
- Farrell, Alex & Carter, Robert & Raufer, Roger, 1999. "The NOx Budget: market-based control of tropospheric ozone in the northeastern United States," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 103-124, May.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:2:p:575-585. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.