IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cpr/ceprdp/10658.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Airport Prices in a Two-Sided Market Setting: Major US Airports

Author

Listed:
  • Ivaldi, Marc
  • Sokullu, Senay
  • Toru, Tuba

Abstract

This paper analyzes the rationale of airport business models. First, it provides evidence that the airports should be considered as two sided markets because of significant network externalities between the airlines and the passengers. This result invalidates the traditional approach where the airport-airline-passenger relationship is considered as vertically integrated, taking passengers as final consumers. Second, a testing procedure aimed at eliciting the real business model of airports demonstrates that the major U.S. airports do not internalize the externalities existing between airlines and passengers. We find that these airports set profit maximizing prices for the non-aeronautical services to passengers and Ramsey prices for the aeronautical services to airlines. Given these results, we conduct a welfare analysis by simulating the implementation of profit maximizing prices when an airport fully accounts for the two-sidedness of its activities. In particular, we show that the impact on social welfare is not independent on the specific features of each airport and that the privatization of airports cannot be considered as the only solution for airports.

Suggested Citation

  • Ivaldi, Marc & Sokullu, Senay & Toru, Tuba, 2015. "Airport Prices in a Two-Sided Market Setting: Major US Airports," CEPR Discussion Papers 10658, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:10658
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cepr.org/active/publications/discussion_papers/dp.php?dpno=10658
    Download Restriction: CEPR Discussion Papers are free to download for our researchers, subscribers and members. If you fall into one of these categories but have trouble downloading our papers, please contact us at subscribers@cepr.org
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Graham, Anne, 2009. "How important are commercial revenues to today's airports?," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 106-111.
    2. Kaiser, Ulrich & Wright, Julian, 2006. "Price structure in two-sided markets: Evidence from the magazine industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 1-28, January.
    3. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-1054, July.
    4. Gagnepain, Philippe & Marin, Pedro L, 2006. "Regulation and Incentives in European Aviation," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 49(1), pages 229-248, April.
    5. Jerome Foncel & Marc Ivaldi, 2005. "Operating System Prices In The Home Pc Market," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(2), pages 265-297, June.
    6. Jean‐Charles Rochet & Jean Tirole, 2006. "Two‐sided markets: a progress report," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 37(3), pages 645-667, September.
    7. Jean-Charles Rochet & Jean Tirole, 2014. "Platform Competition in Two-Sided Markets," CPI Journal, Competition Policy International, vol. 10.
    8. Volodymyr Bilotkach & Joseph Clougherty & Juergen Mueller & Anming Zhang, 2012. "Regulation, privatization, and airport charges: panel data evidence from European airports," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 73-94, August.
    9. Basso, Leonardo J. & Zhang, Anming, 2008. "On the relationship between airport pricing models," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 725-735, November.
    10. Severin Borenstein, 1989. "Hubs and High Fares: Dominance and Market Power in the U.S. Airline Industry," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 20(3), pages 344-365, Autumn.
    11. Lapo Filistrucchi & Damien Geradin & Eric van Damme, 2012. "Identifying Two-Sided Markets," Working Papers - Economics wp2012_01.rdf, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa.
    12. Gillen, David, 2011. "The evolution of airport ownership and governance," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 3-13.
    13. Steven Berry & Panle Jia, 2010. "Tracing the Woes: An Empirical Analysis of the Airline Industry," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 2(3), pages 1-43, August.
    14. Steven T. Berry, 1994. "Estimating Discrete-Choice Models of Product Differentiation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 242-262, Summer.
    15. Gagnepain, Philippe & Marin, Pedro L, 2006. "Regulation and Incentives in European Aviation," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 49(1), pages 229-248, April.
    16. Bilotkach, Volodymyr & Fageda, Xavier & Flores-Fillol, Ricardo, 2010. "Scheduled service versus personal transportation: The role of distance," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 60-72, January.
    17. E. Glen Weyl, 2010. "A Price Theory of Multi-sided Platforms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(4), pages 1642-1672, September.
    18. Fuerst, Franz & Gross, Sven & Klose, Ulf, 2011. "The sky is the limit? The determinants and constraints of European airports commercial revenues," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 278-283.
    19. Kevin Currier, 2008. "Price Cap Regulation of Airports: A New Approach," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 12(8), pages 1-7.
    20. Elena Argentesi & Lapo Filistrucchi, 2007. "Estimating market power in a two-sided market: The case of newspapers," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(7), pages 1247-1266.
    21. Berry, Steven T, 1990. "Airport Presence as Product Differentiation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 394-399, May.
    22. Jean-Charles Rochet & Jean Tirole, 2002. "Cooperation Among Competitors: Some Economics Of Payment Card Associations," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 33(4), pages 549-570, Winter.
    23. Achim Czerny, 2006. "Price-cap Regulation of Airports: Single-till Versus Dual-till," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 85-97, July.
    24. Richard, Oliver, 2003. "Flight frequency and mergers in airline markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 907-922, June.
    25. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:12:y:2008:i:8:p:1-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    26. Basso, Leonardo J., 2008. "Airport deregulation: Effects on pricing and capacity," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 1015-1031, July.
    27. Senay Sokullu, 2012. "Nonparametric Analysis of Two-Sided Markets," Bristol Economics Discussion Papers 12/628, School of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ricardo Flores‐Fillol & Alberto Iozzi & Tommaso Valletti, 2018. "Platform pricing and consumer foresight: The case of airports," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 705-725, October.
    2. Czerny, Achim I. & Shi, Zijun & Zhang, Anming, 2016. "Can market power be controlled by regulation of core prices alone? An empirical analysis of airport demand and car rental price," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 260-272.
    3. Karanki, Fecri & Lim, Siew Hoon & Choi, Bong Jin, 2020. "The determinants of aeronautical charges of U.S. airports: A spatial analysis," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).
    4. Engel, Eduardo & Fischer, Ronald & Galetovic, Alexander, 2018. "The joy of flying: Efficient airport PPP contracts," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 131-146.
    5. Ronald Fischer & Diego Huerta, 2018. "Wealth Inequality and The Political Economy of Financial and Labour Institutions," Documentos de Trabajo 341, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
    6. Kidokoro, Yukihiro & Zhang, Anming, 2018. "Airport congestion pricing and cost recovery with side business," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 114(PA), pages 222-236.
    7. David Martimort & Guillaume Pommey & Jerome Pouyet, 2021. "How to Regulate Airports?," Working Papers hal-03328394, HAL.
    8. Achim I. Czerny & Zijun Shi & Anming Zhang, 2015. "Can market power be controlled by regulation of core prices alone?: An empirical analysis of airport demand and car rental price," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 15-041/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    9. Xiao, Yibin & Fu, Xiaowen & Zhang, Anming, 2016. "Airport capacity choice under airport-airline vertical arrangements," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 298-309.
    10. Kidokoro, Yukihiro & Lin, Ming Hsin & Zhang, Anming, 2016. "A general-equilibrium analysis of airport pricing, capacity, and regulation," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 142-155.
    11. Luigi Serio & Piero Tedeschi & Giovanni Ursino, 2018. "Making Sense of (Ultra) Low-Cost Flights Vertical Differentiation in Two-Sided Markets," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 64(1), pages 401-420, January.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Stefan Behringer & Lapo Filistrucchi, 2015. "Areeda–Turner in Two-Sided Markets," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 46(3), pages 287-306, May.
    2. Jullien, Bruno & Pavan, Alessandro & Rysman, Marc, 2021. "Two-sided Markets, Pricing, and Network Effects," CEPR Discussion Papers 16480, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Kenneth Button, 2020. "Studying the empirical implications of the liberalization of airport markets," Competition and Regulation in Network Industries, , vol. 21(3), pages 223-243, September.
    4. Lapo Filistrucchi & Tobias J. Klein, 2013. "Price Competition in Two-Sided Markets with Heterogeneous Consumers and Network Effects," Working Papers 13-20, NET Institute.
    5. Lapo Filistrucchi & Damien Geradin & Eric van Damme, 2012. "Identifying Two-Sided Markets," Working Papers - Economics wp2012_01.rdf, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa.
    6. Tavalaei, M. Mahdi, 2020. "Waiting time in two-sided platforms: The case of the airport industry," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 159(C).
    7. Baranes, Edmond & Cortade, Thomas & Cosnita-Langlais, Andreea, 2019. "Horizontal mergers on platform markets: cost savings v. cross-group network effects?," MPRA Paper 97459, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Wang, Jin, 2021. "Do birds of a feather flock together? Platform’s quality screening and end-users’ choices theory and empirical study of online trading platforms," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    9. Hangjun Yang & Anming Zhang, 2011. "Price-cap regulation of congested airports," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 293-312, June.
    10. Filistrucchi, L. & Antonielli, M., 2012. "Collusion and the Political Differentiation of Newspapers," Other publications TiSEM 3ec21c1b-a4d8-4a31-a5fc-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    11. Filistrucchi, L. & Gerardin, D. & van Damme, E.E.C. & Keunen, S. & Klein, T.J. & Michielsen, T.O. & Wileur, J., 2010. "Mergers in Two-Sided Markets - A Report to the NMa," Other publications TiSEM f901d1fe-8878-444e-a685-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    12. Ginger Zhe Jin & Marc Rysman, 2015. "Platform Pricing at Sports Card Conventions," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(4), pages 704-735, December.
    13. Charles Angelucci & Julia Cagé, 2019. "Newspapers in Times of Low Advertising Revenues," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 319-364, August.
    14. Justus Haucap & Torben Stühmeier, 2016. "Competition and antitrust in Internet markets," Chapters, in: Johannes M. Bauer & Michael Latzer (ed.), Handbook on the Economics of the Internet, chapter 9, pages 183-210, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    15. Ivaldi, Marc & Zhang, Jiekai, 2015. "Advertising Competition in the French Free-To-Air Television Broadcasting Industry," CEPR Discussion Papers 10762, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. Santiago Carbo-Valverde & Sujit Chakravorti & Francisco Rodriguez-Fernandez, 2009. "Regulating two-sided markets: an empirical investigation," Working Paper Series WP-09-11, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    17. Filistrucchi, L. & Antonielli, M., 2012. "Collusion and the Political Differentiation of Newspapers," Other publications TiSEM 41fe3816-41ca-4f3f-8aef-4, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    18. Minjae Song, 2013. "Estimating Platform Market Power in Two-Sided Markets with an Application to Magazine Advertising," 2013 Meeting Papers 1264, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    19. Kenneth C. Wilbur, 2008. "A Two-Sided, Empirical Model of Television Advertising and Viewing Markets," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 27(3), pages 356-378, 05-06.
    20. Marc Ivaldi & Catherine Muller-Vibes, 2018. "The differentiated effect of advertising on readership: evidence from a two-sided market approach," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 363-376, September.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    airport industry; two-sided markets;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • L93 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Air Transportation

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:10658. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://www.cepr.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.cepr.org .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.