IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/rtv/ceisrp/335.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Platform Pricing and Consumer Foresight: The Case of Airports

Author

Abstract

Airports have become platforms that derive revenues from both aeronautical and commercial activities. The demand for these services is characterized by a one-way complementarity in that only air travelers can purchase retail goods at the airport terminals. We analyze a model of optimal airport behavior in which this one-way complementarity is subject to consumer foresight, i.e., consumers may not anticipate in full the ex post retail surplus when purchasing a flight ticket. An airport sets landing fees, and, in addition, also chooses the retail market structure by choosing the number of retail concessions to be awarded. We find that, with perfectly myopic consumers, the airport chooses to attract more passengers via low landing fees, and also sets the minimum possible number of retailers in order to increase the concessions’ revenues, from which it obtains the largest share of profits. However, even a very small amount of anticipation of the consumer surplus from retail activities changes significantly the airport’s choices: the optimal airport policy is dependent on the degree of differentiation in the retail market. When consumers instead have perfect foresight, the airport establishes a very competitive retail market, where consumers enjoy a large surplus. This attracts passengers and it is exploited by the airport by charging higher landing fees, which then constitute the largest share of its profits. Overall, airport’s profits are maximal when consumers have perfect foresight.

Suggested Citation

  • Ricardo Flores-Fillol & Alberto Iozzi & Tommaso Valletti, 2015. "Platform Pricing and Consumer Foresight: The Case of Airports," CEIS Research Paper 335, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 24 Mar 2015.
  • Handle: RePEc:rtv:ceisrp:335
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://ceistorvergata.it/RePEc/rpaper/RP335.pdf
    File Function: Main text
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Brueckner, Jan K, 1993. "Inter-store Externalities and Space Allocation in Shopping Centers," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 5-16, July.
    2. Paul Klemperer, 1995. "Competition when Consumers have Switching Costs: An Overview with Applications to Industrial Organization, Macroeconomics, and International Trade," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 62(4), pages 515-539.
    3. Caillaud, Bernard & Jullien, Bruno, 2003. "Chicken & Egg: Competition among Intermediation Service Providers," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 34(2), pages 309-328, Summer.
    4. Rupp, Nicholas G., 2009. "Do carriers internalize congestion costs? Empirical evidence on the internalization question," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 24-37, January.
    5. Glenn Ellison, 2005. "A Model of Add-On Pricing," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 120(2), pages 585-637.
    6. Frank Verboven, 1999. "Product Line Rivalry and Market Segmentation—with an Application to Automobile Optional Engine Pricing," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(4), pages 399-425, December.
    7. Nicholas Economides & Evangelos Katsamakas, 2006. "Two-Sided Competition of Proprietary vs. Open Source Technology Platforms and the Implications for the Software Industry," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 52(7), pages 1057-1071, July.
    8. Jan K. Brueckner, 2002. "Airport Congestion When Carriers Have Market Power," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1357-1375, December.
    9. Tiziana D'Alfonso & Changmin Jiang & Yulai Wan, 2013. "Airport Pricing, Concession Revenues and Passenger Types," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 47(1), pages 71-89, January.
    10. Jan K. Brueckner, 2004. "Network Structure and Airline Scheduling," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 291-312, June.
    11. Heiko Karle & Martin Peitz, 2014. "Competition under consumer loss aversion," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 45(1), pages 1-31, March.
    12. Jean-Charles Rochet & Jean Tirole, 2003. "Platform Competition in Two-Sided Markets," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 1(4), pages 990-1029, June.
    13. Xavier Gabaix & David Laibson, 2018. "Shrouded attributes, consumer myopia and information suppression in competitive markets," Chapters, in: Victor J. Tremblay & Elizabeth Schroeder & Carol Horton Tremblay (ed.), Handbook of Behavioral Industrial Organization, chapter 3, pages 40-74, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    14. Haskel, Jonathan & Iozzi, Alberto & Valletti, Tommaso, 2013. "Market structure, countervailing power and price discrimination: The case of airports," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 12-26.
    15. Esther Gal‐Or, 1997. "Exclusionary Equilibria in Health‐Care Markets," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(1), pages 5-43, March.
    16. Raj Chetty, 2015. "Behavioral Economics and Public Policy: A Pragmatic Perspective," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(5), pages 1-33, May.
    17. Achim Czerny, 2006. "Price-cap Regulation of Airports: Single-till Versus Dual-till," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 85-97, July.
    18. Van Dender, Kurt, 2007. "Determinants of fares and operating revenues at US airports," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 317-336, September.
    19. Pashigian, B Peter & Gould, Eric D, 1998. "Internalizing Externalities: The Pricing of Space in Shopping Malls," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 115-142, April.
    20. Andrei Hagiu, 2009. "Two‐Sided Platforms: Product Variety and Pricing Structures," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(4), pages 1011-1043, December.
    21. Andrei Hagiu & Daniel Spulber, 2013. "First-Party Content and Coordination in Two-Sided Markets," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 59(4), pages 933-949, April.
    22. Walter Y. Oi, 1971. "A Disneyland Dilemma: Two-Part Tariffs for a Mickey Mouse Monopoly," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 85(1), pages 77-96.
    23. Christopher Mayer & Todd Sinai, 2003. "Network Effects, Congestion Externalities, and Air Traffic Delays: Or Why Not All Delays Are Evil," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(4), pages 1194-1215, September.
    24. Zhang, Anming & Zhang, Yimin, 2010. "Airport capacity and congestion pricing with both aeronautical and commercial operations," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 404-413, March.
    25. Wedad Elmaghraby & P{i}nar Keskinocak, 2003. "Dynamic Pricing in the Presence of Inventory Considerations: Research Overview, Current Practices, and Future Directions," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 49(10), pages 1287-1309, October.
    26. David Starkie, 2001. "Reforming UK Airport Regulation," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 35(1), pages 119-135, January.
    27. Meghan R. Busse & Christopher R. Knittel & Florian Zettelmeyer, 2013. "Are Consumers Myopic? Evidence from New and Used Car Purchases," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(1), pages 220-256, February.
    28. Daniel, Joseph I, 1995. "Congestion Pricing and Capacity of Large Hub Airports: A Bottleneck Model with Stochastic Queues," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(2), pages 327-370, March.
    29. Paul Heidhues & Botond Koszegi, 2010. "Exploiting Naivete about Self-Control in the Credit Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(5), pages 2279-2303, December.
    30. Ramon Casadesus‐Masanell & Gastón Llanes, 2015. "Investment Incentives in Open‐Source and Proprietary Two‐Sided Platforms," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(2), pages 306-324, June.
    31. Geoffrey G. Parker & Marshall W. Van Alstyne, 2005. "Two-Sided Network Effects: A Theory of Information Product Design," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 51(10), pages 1494-1504, October.
    32. Kevin Boudreau, 2010. "Open Platform Strategies and Innovation: Granting Access vs. Devolving Control," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(10), pages 1849-1872, October.
    33. Esther Gal‐Or, 1999. "Mergers and Exclusionary Practices in Health Care Markets," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(3), pages 315-350, September.
    34. Gillen, David, 2011. "The evolution of airport ownership and governance," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 3-13.
    35. Gans, Joshua S. & King, Stephen P., 2000. "Mobile network competition, customer ignorance and fixed-to-mobile call prices," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 301-327, December.
    36. Kratzsch, Uwe & Sieg, Gernot, 2011. "Non-aviation revenues and their implications for airport regulation," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(5), pages 755-763, September.
    37. Zhang, Anming & Zhang, Yimin, 2006. "Airport capacity and congestion when carriers have market power," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 229-247, September.
    38. Kosfeld, Michael & Schüwer, Ulrich, 2016. "Pricing in retail financial markets and the fallacies of consumer education," SAFE Working Paper Series 47, Leibniz Institute for Financial Research SAFE, revised 2016.
    39. Ivaldi, Marc & Sokullu, Senay & Toru-Delibasi, Tuba, 2015. "Airport Prices in a Two-Sided Market Setting: Major US Airports," TSE Working Papers 15-587, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    40. Peng Huang & Marco Ceccagnoli & Chris Forman & D. J. Wu, 2013. "Appropriability Mechanisms and the Platform Partnership Decision: Evidence from Enterprise Software," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 59(1), pages 102-121, July.
    41. Gans, Joshua S., 2012. "Mobile application pricing," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 52-59.
    42. Jeffrey D. Shulman & Xianjun Geng, 2013. "Add-on Pricing by Asymmetric Firms," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 59(4), pages 899-917, April.
    43. Lal, Rajiv & Matutes, Carmen, 1994. "Retail Pricing and Advertising Strategies," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67(3), pages 345-370, July.
    44. Miceli, Thomas J. & Sirmans, C. F., 1995. "Contracting with spatial externalities and agency problems The case of retail leases," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 355-372, June.
    45. Zhang, Anming & Zhang, Yimin, 1997. "Concession revenue and optimal airport pricing," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 287-296, December.
    46. Sanjiv Erat & Sreekumar R. Bhaskaran, 2012. "Consumer Mental Accounts and Implications to Selling Base Products and Add-ons," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 31(5), pages 801-818, September.
    47. Wenzel, Tobias, 2014. "Consumer myopia, competition and the incentives to unshroud add-on information," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 89-96.
    48. Jeffrey D. Shulman & Anne T. Coughlan & R. Canan Savaskan, 2011. "Managing Consumer Returns in a Competitive Environment," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(2), pages 347-362, February.
    49. Wright Julian, 2004. "One-sided Logic in Two-sided Markets," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-21, March.
    50. Czerny, Achim I., 2013. "Public versus private airport behavior when concession revenues exist," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 38-46.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Czerny, Achim I. & Zhang, Hanxiang, 2020. "Rivalry between airport ancillary and city-center supplies," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 141(C).
    2. Kidokoro, Yukihiro & Zhang, Anming, 2022. "Airport cities and social welfare," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 158(C), pages 187-209.
    3. Tiziana D'Alfonso & Valentina Bracaglia & Yulai Wan, 2015. "Airport cities and multiproduct pricing," DIAG Technical Reports 2015-14, Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza".
    4. Naoshi Doi, 2022. "Choice of Policy Instruments with Endogenous Quality: Per‐Passenger and Per‐Flight Airport Charges in Japan," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(1), pages 44-88, March.
    5. Xi Wan & Benteng Zou, 2020. "Airport Competition in Two-sided Markets," DEM Discussion Paper Series 20-01, Department of Economics at the University of Luxembourg.
    6. Achim I. Czerny & Anmin Zhang, 2015. "Single-Till versus Dual-Till Regulation of Airports," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 15-049/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    7. Chen, Shangrong & Bravo-Melgarejo, Sai & Mongeau, Romain & Malavolti, Estelle, 2023. "Adopting and diffusing hydrogen technology in air transport: An evolutionary game theory approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 125(C).
    8. Presto, Felix & Gollnick, Volker & Lau, Alexander & Lütjens, Klaus, 2022. "Flight frequency regulation and its temporal implications," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 106-118.
    9. Nerja, Adrian, 2021. "Exclusivity in concession revenue sharing contracts," MPRA Paper 119096, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Kidokoro, Yukihiro & Zhang, Anming, 2023. "Single-till regulation, dual-till regulation, and regulatory capture: When does a regulatory authority favor single-till regulation over dual-till regulation?," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 33(C).
    11. Czerny, Achim I. & Shi, Zijun & Zhang, Anming, 2016. "Can market power be controlled by regulation of core prices alone? An empirical analysis of airport demand and car rental price," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 260-272.
    12. Kidokoro, Yukihiro & Zhang, Anming, 2018. "Airport congestion pricing and cost recovery with side business," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 114(PA), pages 222-236.
    13. Achim I. Czerny & Zijun Shi & Anming Zhang, 2015. "Can market power be controlled by regulation of core prices alone?: An empirical analysis of airport demand and car rental price," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 15-041/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    14. Jiang, Changmin & Zhang, Anming, 2015. "Airport congestion pricing and terminal investment: Effects of terminal congestion, passenger types, and concessionsAuthor-Name: Wan, Yulai," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 91-113.
    15. Nerja, A. & Sánchez, M., 2021. "The effects of concession revenue sharing contracts in airport competition," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 28(C).
    16. Xueke Du & Rui Dong & Wenli Li & Yibo Jia & Lirong Chen, 2019. "Online Reviews Matter: How Can Platforms Benefit from Online Reviews?," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(22), pages 1-20, November.
    17. Carlotta Mariotto & Marianne Verdier, 2020. "Platform–merchant competition for sales services," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(4), pages 834-853, October.
    18. Nerja, Adrián, 2022. "Exclusivity in concession revenue sharing contracts," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 99(C).
    19. Tavalaei, M. Mahdi, 2020. "Waiting time in two-sided platforms: The case of the airport industry," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 159(C).
    20. Kidokoro, Yukihiro & Lin, Ming Hsin & Zhang, Anming, 2016. "A general-equilibrium analysis of airport pricing, capacity, and regulation," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 142-155.
    21. D’Amico, Giuseppe, 2022. "Platform competition and consumer foresight: The case of airports," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 29(C).
    22. Adrian Nerja, 2017. "Effects of concession revenue sharing contracts and airline alliances in airport competition," Discussion Papers in Economic Behaviour 0317, University of Valencia, ERI-CES.
    23. Bettini, Humberto F.A.J. & Oliveira, Alessandro V.M., 2016. "Two-sided platforms in airport privatization," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 262-278.
    24. Luigi Serio & Piero Tedeschi & Giovanni Ursino, 2018. "Making Sense of (Ultra) Low-Cost Flights Vertical Differentiation in Two-Sided Markets," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 64(1), pages 401-420, January.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Czerny, Achim I. & Zhang, Hanxiang, 2020. "Rivalry between airport ancillary and city-center supplies," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 141(C).
    2. Jiang, Changmin & Zhang, Anming, 2015. "Airport congestion pricing and terminal investment: Effects of terminal congestion, passenger types, and concessionsAuthor-Name: Wan, Yulai," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 91-113.
    3. Kidokoro, Yukihiro & Lin, Ming Hsin & Zhang, Anming, 2016. "A general-equilibrium analysis of airport pricing, capacity, and regulation," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 142-155.
    4. Choo, Yap Yin & Corbo, Leonardo & Wang, Kun, 2018. "Joint impact of airline market structure and airport ownership on airport market power and profit margin," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 67-78.
    5. Kidokoro, Yukihiro & Zhang, Anming, 2018. "Airport congestion pricing and cost recovery with side business," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 114(PA), pages 222-236.
    6. Zhang, Anming & Czerny, Achim I., 2012. "Airports and airlines economics and policy: An interpretive review of recent research," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 15-34.
    7. Tavalaei, M. Mahdi, 2020. "Waiting time in two-sided platforms: The case of the airport industry," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 159(C).
    8. Bracaglia, Valentina & D׳Alfonso, Tiziana & Nastasi, Alberto, 2014. "Competition between multiproduct airports," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 270-281.
    9. Hangjun Yang & Anming Zhang, 2011. "Price-cap regulation of congested airports," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 293-312, June.
    10. repec:aeg:report:2014-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Kenneth Button, 2020. "Studying the empirical implications of the liberalization of airport markets," Competition and Regulation in Network Industries, , vol. 21(3), pages 223-243, September.
    12. Achim I. Czerny, 2012. "Public Versus Private Airport Behavior When Concession Revenues Exist," WHU Working Paper Series - Economics Group 12-01, WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management.
    13. Tiziana D'Alfonso & Valentina Bracaglia & Yulai Wan, 2015. "Airport cities and multiproduct pricing," DIAG Technical Reports 2015-14, Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza".
    14. Czerny, Achim I. & Shi, Zijun & Zhang, Anming, 2016. "Can market power be controlled by regulation of core prices alone? An empirical analysis of airport demand and car rental price," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 260-272.
    15. Achim I. Czerny & Anmin Zhang, 2015. "Single-Till versus Dual-Till Regulation of Airports," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 15-049/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    16. Peng Huang & Gaoyan Lyu & Yi Xu, 2022. "Quality Regulation on Two-Sided Platforms: Exclusion, Subsidization, and First-Party Applications," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 68(6), pages 4415-4434, June.
    17. Marco Savioli & Lorenzo Zirulia, 2020. "Does add-on presence always lead to lower baseline prices? Theory and evidence," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 129(2), pages 143-172, March.
    18. Achim I. Czerny, 2009. "Airport Pricing and Concession Revenues," WHU Working Paper Series - Economics Group 09-05, WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management.
    19. Achim I. Czerny & Zijun Shi & Anming Zhang, 2015. "Can market power be controlled by regulation of core prices alone?: An empirical analysis of airport demand and car rental price," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 15-041/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    20. Valentina Bracaglia & Tiziana D'Alfonso & Alberto Nastasi, 2014. "Multiproduct airport competition and e-commerce strategies," DIAG Technical Reports 2014-04, Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza".
    21. Robert Seamans & Feng Zhu, 2014. "Responses to Entry in Multi-Sided Markets: The Impact of Craigslist on Local Newspapers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 60(2), pages 476-493, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    two-sided markets; platform pricing; one-way demand complementarity; consumer foresight;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • L1 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
    • L2 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
    • L93 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Air Transportation

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rtv:ceisrp:335. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Barbara Piazzi (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/csrotit.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.