IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cir/cirpro/2005rp-04.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

La formation qualifiante et transférable en milieu de travail

Author

Listed:
  • Yanick Labrie
  • Claude Montmarquette

Abstract

Comment définir une formation qualifiante et transférable? Comment favoriser et obtenir une telle formation en milieu de travail? Qui doit payer pour cette formation? Pourquoi certaines entreprises offrent une formation structurée à leurs employés contrairement à d'autres? Qui reçoit cette formation? Pourquoi plusieurs employés refusent la formation offerte par leur employeur? Pourquoi certaines économies ont senti le besoin de légiférer sur cette question en instaurant une obligation financière de formation et d'autres ne l'ont pas fait? Pour répondre à ces questions et à plusieurs autres questions connexes, nous avons répertorié et analysé plus de 140 travaux provenant essentiellement des écrits des économistes sur le sujet. Notre étude rapporte plusieurs éléments de réponse à ces questions et discute plusieurs autres dimensions connexes aux déterminants de la formation en entreprise (impacts de la formation, incitatifs et barrières à la formation, les politiques publiques en matière de formation). Il est possible cependant que certaines réponses demeurent insatisfaisantes aux yeux de la Commission des Partenaires du marché du travail. C'est notamment ce que nous appréhendons au sujet de la définition d'une formation qualifiante et transférable. Chez les économistes, ces termes ne sont pas comme tels retenus. Ce sont les concepts de formation générale et de formation spécifique qui sont discutés amplement dans la littérature économique.Par formation générale, on entend chez les économistes une formation qui a de la valeur autant au sein de l'entreprise qui choisit de l'offrir à ses employés qu'au sein d'entreprises extérieures. À cet égard, il est reconnu que ce type de formation est pleinement transférable. Par contraste, la formation spécifique n'est utile qu'au sein de l'entreprise qui choisit de l'offrir à ses employés. Ce type de formation n'est donc aucunement transférable. Récemment, on a proposé l'idée que toutes les compétences acquises en cours de formation seraient de nature générale, mais que la combinaison de ces compétences générales serait de nature spécifique à l'entreprise. En ce qui concerne la formation qualifiante, elle peut être définie comme un processus par lequel l'individu développe les compétences nécessaires à l'exercice d'une fonction ou d'un métier sur le marché du travail. Or, ce n'est qu'ex post que la formation est qualifiante, c'est-à-dire lorsqu'elle se traduit par une hausse de productivité, une hausse de salaire, ou une hausse de mobilité professionnelle. Par ailleurs, d'autres éléments ne sont pas de nature à simplifier la recherche d'un cadre opérationnel aux termes de la Loi portant sur la question de la formation « qualifiante » et « transférable ». Par exemple, une formation non qualifiante peut le devenir par l'innovation et il est aussi possible que dans certains cas un délai dans le temps soit nécessaire pour qu'une formation devienne qualifiante.Si plusieurs réponses demeurent incomplètes, il existe néanmoins un certain agrément sur plusieurs points et cela est grandement susceptible d'éclairer le débat entourant la promotion de la formation en entreprise. D'abord, la portée du sujet est indéniable : la question de la formation des travailleurs en entreprise est fondamentale dans un contexte de concurrence mondiale accrue. Cette situation est particulièrement importante pour le Québec avec son économie largement ouverte sur les marchés extérieurs. La formation en milieu de travail est un investissement en capital humain qui est un facteur majeur de la croissance économique et une condition garante d'une meilleure qualité de vie pour les individus. Il existe aussi un consensus à l'effet que la formation en entreprise soit d'abord et avant tout le privilège des travailleurs les plus habiles et les mieux éduqués à la base. Un autre constat bien évident est que plusieurs conditions semblent nécessaires pour favoriser la formation en milieu de travail, que ce soit, par exemple, l'abolition des contraintes institutionnelles ou la simple amélioration de la reconnaissance des acquis, alors qu'aucune n'est en soi suffisante. La Loi favorisant le développement de la formation de la main-d'uvre, qui oblige toutes les entreprises d'une certaine taille à investir 1% de leur masse salariale dans la formation de la main-d'uvre n'apparaît pas être une condition suffisante. S'il en était autrement, elle serait universelle et non l'exception dans les économies. Que cette loi soit une condition nécessaire au Québec est une autre question qui nous amène à nous interroger, comme nous l'avons fait dans ce travail, sur les déterminants fondamentaux de la formation en milieu de travail. À la base de ces déterminants, on retrouve la nécessité que la formation soit un investissement rentable autant pour l'individu que pour la firme qui l'embauche. Notre étude se termine en offrant quelques recommandations pour favoriser la formation en entreprise tout en suggérant diverses pistes pour des recherches futures.

Suggested Citation

  • Yanick Labrie & Claude Montmarquette, 2005. "La formation qualifiante et transférable en milieu de travail," CIRANO Project Reports 2005rp-04, CIRANO.
  • Handle: RePEc:cir:cirpro:2005rp-04
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://cirano.qc.ca/files/publications/2005RP-04.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Wayne Simpson, 1984. "An Econometric Analysis of Industrial Training in Canada," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 19(4), pages 435-451.
    2. Christofides, Louis N & McKenna, C J, 1996. "Unemployment Insurance and Job Duration in Canada," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(2), pages 286-312, April.
    3. Heckman, James J & Lochner, Lance & Taber, Christopher, 1998. "Tax Policy and Human-Capital Formation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(2), pages 293-297, May.
    4. John M. Barron & Dan A. Black & Mark A. Loewenstein, 1993. "Gender Differences in Training, Capital, and Wages," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(2), pages 343-364.
    5. Loewenstein, Mark A & Spletzer, James R, 1998. "Dividing the Costs and Returns to General Training," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 142-171, January.
    6. Jacob Mincer, 1988. "Job Training, Wage Growth, and Labor Turnover," NBER Working Papers 2690, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Rosen, Harvey S, 1982. "Taxation and On-the-Job Training Decisions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 64(3), pages 442-449, August.
    8. Lazear, Edward P, 1981. "Agency, Earnings Profiles, Productivity, and Hours Restrictions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(4), pages 606-620, September.
    9. Booth, Alison L, 1991. "Job-Related Formal Training: Who Receives It and What Is It Worth?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 53(3), pages 281-294, August.
    10. Daron Acemoglu & Jorn-Steffen Pischke, 1999. "Minimum Wages and On-the-job Training," NBER Working Papers 7184, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Daron Acemoglu, 2002. "Directed Technical Change," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 69(4), pages 781-809.
    12. David Green & Thomas Lemieux, 2007. "The impact of unionization on the incidence of and sources of payment for training in Canada," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 465-489, May.
    13. Caroli, Eve & Greenan, Nathalie & Guellec, Dominique, 2001. "Organizational Change and Skill Accumulation," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(2), pages 481-506, June.
    14. James Heckman, 1998. "What should be our human capital investment policy?," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 19(2), pages 103-119, May.
    15. Weiss, Yoram, 1985. "The Effect of Labor Unions on Investment in Training: A Dynamic Model," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(5), pages 994-1007, October.
    16. Francis Green & Stephen Machin & David Wilkinson, 1999. "Trade Unions and Training Practices in British Workplaces," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 52(2), pages 179-195, January.
    17. Ann P. Bartel, 1992. "Training, Wage Growth and Job Performance: Evidence From a Company Database," NBER Working Papers 4027, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. VILHUBERT, Lars, 1999. "Sector-Specific on-the-Job Training: Evidence from U.S. Data," Cahiers de recherche 9906, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
    19. Daron Acemoglu & Jorn-Steffen Pischke, 1999. "The Structure of Wages and Investment in General Training," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(3), pages 539-572, June.
    20. Acemoglu, Daron & Pischke, Jorn-Steffen, 2000. "Certification of training and training outcomes," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(4-6), pages 917-927, May.
    21. Brunello, Giorgio, 2001. "On the Complementarity between Education and Training in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 309, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    22. Daniel Parent, 2003. "Employer-supported training in Canada and its impact on mobility and wages," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 431-459, July.
    23. Snower, Dennis J, 1994. "Converting Unemployment Benefits into Employment Subsidies," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 65-70, May.
    24. Richard Blundell & Lorraine Dearden & Costas Meghir & Barbara Sianesi, 1999. "Human capital investment: the returns from education and training to the individual, the firm and the economy," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 20(1), pages 1-23, March.
    25. Timothy F. Bresnahan & Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin M. Hitt, 2002. "Information Technology, Workplace Organization, and the Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 339-376.
    26. Schlicht, Ekkehart, 1996. "Endogenous on-the-job training with moral hazard," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 81-92, August.
    27. Stevens, Margaret, 2001. "Should Firms Be Required to Pay for Vocational Training?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(473), pages 485-505, July.
    28. Lisa M. Lynch & Sandra E. Black, 1998. "Beyond the Incidence of Employer-Provided Training," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 52(1), pages 64-81, October.
    29. Lynch, Lisa M, 1992. "Private-Sector Training and the Earnings of Young Workers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 299-312, March.
    30. Jacob Mincer, 1989. "Job Training: Costs, Returns, and Wage Profiles," NBER Working Papers 3208, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    31. Stevens, Margaret, 1994. "Labour Contracts and Efficiency in On-the-Job Training," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(423), pages 408-419, March.
    32. Bartel, Ann P, 1995. "Training, Wage Growth, and Job Performance: Evidence from a Company Database," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(3), pages 401-425, July.
    33. David G. Blanchflower & Lisa M. Lynch, 1994. "Training at Work: A Comparison of U.S. and British Youths," NBER Chapters, in: Training and the Private Sector: International Comparisons, pages 233-260, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    34. Acemoglu, Daron & Pischke, Jorn-Steffen, 1999. "Beyond Becker: Training in Imperfect Labour Markets," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(453), pages 112-142, February.
    35. John M. Barron & Mark C. Berger & Dan A. Black, 1997. "On-the-Job Training," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number ojt, December.
    36. Ann P. Bartel, 1989. "Formal Employee Training Programs and Their Impact on Labor Produc- tivity: Evidence from a Human Resources Survey," NBER Working Papers 3026, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    37. Francis Green & Alan Felstead & Ken Mayhew & Alan Pack, 2000. "The Impact of Training on Labour Mobility: Individual and Firm‐level Evidence from Britain," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 38(2), pages 261-275, June.
    38. Stevens, Margaret, 1999. "Human Capital Theory and UK Vocational Training Policy," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(1), pages 16-32, Spring.
    39. Goux, Dominique & Maurin, Eric, 2000. "Returns to firm-provided training: evidence from French worker-firm matched data1," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 1-19, January.
    40. Jonathan R. Veum, 1997. "Training and job mobility among young workers in the United States," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(2), pages 219-233.
    41. Booth, Alison L & Chatterji, Monojit, 1998. "Unions and Efficient Training," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(447), pages 328-343, March.
    42. Edward P. Lazear, 2009. "Firm-Specific Human Capital: A Skill-Weights Approach," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 117(5), pages 914-940, October.
    43. Bartel, Ann P & Lichtenberg, Frank R, 1987. "The Comparative Advantage of Educated Workers in Implementing New Technology," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(1), pages 1-11, February.
    44. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10093 is not listed on IDEAS
    45. Stevens, Margaret, 1994. "A Theoretical Model of On-the-Job Training with Imperfect Competition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(4), pages 537-562, October.
    46. Denis Fougère & Dominique Goux & Éric Maurin, 2001. "Formation continue et carrières salariales. Une évaluation sur données individuelles," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 62, pages 49-69.
    47. Burdett, Ken & Smith, Eric, 2002. "The low skill trap," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1439-1451, September.
    48. David Fairris & Roberto Pedace, 2004. "The Impact of Minimum Wages on Job Training: An Empirical Exploration with Establishment Data," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 566-583, January.
    49. Daron Acemoglu, 1997. "Training and Innovation in an Imperfect Labour Market," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(3), pages 445-464.
    50. Jacob Mincer, 1981. "Union Effects: Wages, Turnover, and Job Training," NBER Working Papers 0808, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    51. Parsons, Donald O, 1972. "Specific Human Capital: An Application to Quit Rates and Layoff Rates," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(6), pages 1120-1143, Nov.-Dec..
    52. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1979. "Firm-specific Capital and Turnover," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(6), pages 1246-1260, December.
    53. Joanne Salop & Steven Salop, 1976. "Self-Selection and Turnover in the Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 90(4), pages 619-627.
    54. Barron, John M & Berger, Mark C & Black, Dan A, 1997. "How Well Do We Measure Training?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(3), pages 507-528, July.
    55. Stevens, Margaret, 1994. "An Investment Model for the Supply of Training by Employers," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(424), pages 556-570, May.
    56. Wiji Arulampalam & Alison L. Booth & Mark L. Bryan, 2004. "Training and the new minimum wage," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(494), pages 87-94, March.
    57. Baldwin, John R., 2000. "Innovation and Training in New Firms," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2000123e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    58. Barron, John M & Black, Dan A & Loewenstein, Mark A, 1989. "Job Matching and On-the-Job Training," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(1), pages 1-19, January.
    59. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10092 is not listed on IDEAS
    60. Baldwin, John R. & Yates, Janice, 1999. "Innovation, Training and Success," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1999137e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    61. Johnson, Joanne & Baldwin, John R., 1995. "Human Capital Development and Innovation: The Case of Training in Small and Medium Sized Firms," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 1995074e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    62. Parent, Daniel, 1999. "Wages and Mobility: The Impact of Employer-Provided Training," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(2), pages 298-317, April.
    63. Harley Frazis & Maury Gittleman & Mary Joyce, 2000. "Correlates of Training: An Analysis Using Both Employer and Employee Characteristics," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 53(3), pages 443-462, April.
    64. Kapsalis, Constantine, 1997. "Employee Training: An International Perspective," MPRA Paper 25754, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    65. Black, Sandra E & Lynch, Lisa M, 1996. "Human-Capital Investments and Productivity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 263-267, May.
    66. Lynch, Lisa M, 1991. "The Role of Off-the-Job vs. On-the-Job Training for the Mobility of Women Workers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(2), pages 151-156, May.
    67. Booth, Alison L, 1993. "Private Sector Training and Graduate Earnings," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 75(1), pages 164-170, February.
    68. Katz, Eliakim & Ziderman, Adrian, 1990. "Investment in General Training: The Role of Information and Labour Mobility," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 100(403), pages 1147-1158, December.
    69. Dan A. Black & Brett J. Noel & Zheng Wang, 1999. "On-the-Job Training, Establishment Size, and Firm Size: Evidence for Economies of Scale in the Production of Human Capital," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 66(1), pages 82-100, July.
    70. Joanne Salop & Steven C. Salop, 1976. "Self-selection and turnover in the labor market," Special Studies Papers 80, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    71. Michael Spence, 1973. "Job Market Signaling," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(3), pages 355-374.
    72. Mark A. Loewenstein & James R. Spletzer, 1999. "General and Specific Training: Evidence and Implications," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(4), pages 710-733.
    73. Daron Acemoglu, 1996. "A Microfoundation for Social Increasing Returns in Human Capital Accumulation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(3), pages 779-804.
    74. Barron, John M & Black, Dan A & Loewenstein, Mark A, 1987. "Employer Size: The Implications for Search, Training, Capital Investment, Starting Wages, and Wage Growth," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 5(1), pages 76-89, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cir:cirpro:2005rp-04. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Webmaster). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/ciranca.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.