IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/unu/wpaper/wp2016-149.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Gender matters: Private sector training in Vietnamese SMEs

Author

Listed:
  • Benedikte Bjerge
  • Nina Torm
  • Neda Trifkovic

Abstract

In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful such training may be in closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer–employee panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated with a wage increase of 7–22 per cent for female workers only, depending on the analytical approach taken. We also show evidence that the wage increase is associated only with on-the-job training and that lower ability workers are more likely to be trained. Our findings indicate that, at least in Viet Nam, firm-sponsored on-the-job training helps close the gender wage gap.

Suggested Citation

  • Benedikte Bjerge & Nina Torm & Neda Trifkovic, 2016. "Gender matters: Private sector training in Vietnamese SMEs," WIDER Working Paper Series 149, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  • Handle: RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2016-149
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.wider.unu.edu/sites/default/files/wp2016-149.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gerard J. van den Berg & Pia R. Pinger & Johannes Schoch, 2016. "Instrumental Variable Estimation of the Causal Effect of Hunger Early in Life on Health Later in Life," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 126(591), pages 465-506, March.
    2. Carla Haelermans & Lex Borghans, 2012. "Wage Effects of On-the-Job Training: A Meta-Analysis," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 50(3), pages 502-528, September.
    3. Almeida, Rita & Carneiro, Pedro, 2009. "The return to firm investments in human capital," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 97-106, January.
    4. John M. Barron & Dan A. Black & Mark A. Loewenstein, 1993. "Gender Differences in Training, Capital, and Wages," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(2), pages 343-364.
    5. Montgomery, James D, 1991. "Social Networks and Labor-Market Outcomes: Toward an Economic Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(5), pages 1407-1418, December.
    6. Uri Gneezy & Muriel Niederle & Aldo Rustichini, 2003. "Performance in Competitive Environments: Gender Differences," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1049-1074.
    7. Kahyarara, Godius & Teal, Francis, 2008. "The Returns to Vocational Training and Academic Education: Evidence from Tanzania," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 2223-2242, November.
    8. Alan Barrett & Philip J. O'Connell, 2001. "Does Training Generally Work? The Returns to in-Company Training," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 54(3), pages 647-662, April.
    9. Jörn-Steffen Pischke, 2001. "Continuous training in Germany," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 14(3), pages 523-548.
    10. Rosholm, Michael & Nielsen, Helena Skyt & Dabalen, Andrew, 2007. "Evaluation of training in African enterprises," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 310-329, September.
    11. Uschi Backes-Gellner & Yvonne Oswald & Simone Tuor Sartore, 2014. "Part-Time Employment—Boon to Women but Bane to Men? New Insights on Employer-Provided Training," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(4), pages 463-481, November.
    12. Nguyen, Binh T. & Albrecht, James W. & Vroman, Susan B. & Westbrook, M. Daniel, 2007. "A quantile regression decomposition of urban-rural inequality in Vietnam," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 466-490, July.
    13. Richard Blundell & Lorraine Dearden & Costas Meghir & Barbara Sianesi, 1999. "Human capital investment: the returns from education and training to the individual, the firm and the economy," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 20(1), pages 1-23, March.
    14. Thang Ngoc Nguyen & Quang Truong & Dirk Buyens, 2011. "Training and firm performance in economies in transition: a comparison between Vietnam and China," Asia Pacific Business Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 103-119, January.
    15. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Introduction to "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings"," NBER Chapters,in: Schooling, Experience, and Earnings, pages 1-4 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Holger Görg & Eric Strobl & Frank Walsh, 2007. "Why Do Foreign Firms Pay More: The Role of On-the-Job-Training," Open Access publications 10197/8053, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    17. Lynch, Lisa M, 1992. "Private-Sector Training and the Earnings of Young Workers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 299-312, March.
    18. Amy Liu, 2004. "Sectoral gender wage gap in Vietnam," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(2), pages 225-239.
    19. David H. Autor, 2001. "Why Do Temporary Help Firms Provide Free General Skills Training?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(4), pages 1409-1448.
    20. Xiao, Jin, 2002. "Determinants of salary growth in Shenzhen, China: an analysis of formal education, on-the-job training, and adult education with a three-level model," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 557-577, December.
    21. Jonathan R. Veum, 1999. "Training, Wages, and the Human Capital Model," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 65(3), pages 526-538, January.
    22. Holger Görg & Eric Strobl & Frank Walsh, 2016. "Why Do Foreign-Owned Firms Pay More? The Role of On-the-Job Training," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES AND HOST COUNTRY DEVELOPMENT Volume 53: World Scientific Studies in International Economics, chapter 3, pages 33-51 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    23. Rita Almeida & Marta Faria, 2014. "The wage returns to on-the-job training: evidence from matched employer-employee data," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-33, December.
    24. Acemoglu, Daron & Pischke, Jorn-Steffen, 1999. "Beyond Becker: Training in Imperfect Labour Markets," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(453), pages 112-142, February.
    25. Claudia Goldin, 2014. "A Grand Gender Convergence: Its Last Chapter," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(4), pages 1091-1119, April.
    26. Arriagada, Ana-Maria, 1990. "Labor market outcomes of non-formal training for male and female workers in Peru," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 331-342, December.
    27. Anna Folke Larsen & John Rand & Nina Torm, 2011. "Do Recruitment Ties Affect Wages? An Analysis using Matched Employer–Employee Data from Vietnam," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(3), pages 541-555, August.
    28. Goux, Dominique & Maurin, Eric, 2000. "Returns to firm-provided training: evidence from French worker-firm matched data1," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 1-19, January.
    29. Stevens, Margaret, 1994. "A Theoretical Model of On-the-Job Training with Imperfect Competition," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(4), pages 537-562, October.
    30. Soderbom, Mans & Teal, Francis & Wambugu, Anthony, 2005. "Unobserved heterogeneity and the relation between earnings and firm size: evidence from two developing countries," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 153-159, May.
    31. Ng, Ying Chu, 2005. "Training determinants and productivity impact of training in China: a case of Shanghai," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 275-295, June.
    32. Hessel Oosterbeek & Edwin Leuven, 2001. "Firm-Specific Human Capital as a Shared Investment: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 342-347, March.
    33. Harley Frazis & Mark A. Loewenstein, 2005. "Reexamining the Returns to Training: Functional Form, Magnitude, and Interpretation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 40(2).
    34. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1, December.
    35. Futoshi Yamauchi & Nipon Poapongsakorn & Nipa Srianant, 2009. "Technical Change and the Returns and Investments in Firm-level Training: Evidence from Thailand," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(10), pages 1633-1650.
    36. Conti, Gabriella, 2005. "Training, productivity and wages in Italy," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 557-576, August.
    37. Weiss, Andrew & Landau, Henry J, 1984. "Wages, Hiring Standards, and Firm Size," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(4), pages 477-499, October.
    38. John Rand & Finn Tarp, 2011. "Does Gender Influence the Provision of Fringe Benefits? Evidence From Vietnamese SMEs," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 59-87, January.
    39. Parent, Daniel, 1999. "Wages and Mobility: The Impact of Employer-Provided Training," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(2), pages 298-317, April.
    40. Gérard Ballot & Fathi Fakhfakh & Erol Taymaz, 2006. "Who Benefits from Training and R&D, the Firm or the Workers?," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 44(3), pages 473-495, September.
    41. Francis Teal & Godius Kahyarara, 2008. "The returns to vocational training and academic education: Evidence from Tanzania," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2008-07, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    42. Hill, Elizabeth T., 2001. "Post-school-age training among women: training methods and labor market outcomes at older ages," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 181-191, April.
    43. Michael Spence, 1973. "Job Market Signaling," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(3), pages 355-374.
    44. Mark A. Loewenstein & James R. Spletzer, 1999. "General and Specific Training: Evidence and Implications," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(4), pages 710-733.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    training; wage; SME; Viet Nam;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2016-149. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mauricio Roa Grisales). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/widerfi.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.