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What are the price effects of trade? Evidence from the US and implications for quantitative trade models

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  • Xavier Jaravel
  • Erick Sager

Abstract

This paper finds that U.S. consumer prices fell substantially due to increased trade with China. With comprehensive price micro-data and two complementary identification strategies, we estimate that a 1pp increase in import penetration from China causes a 1.91% decline in consumer prices. This price response is driven by declining markups for domestically-produced goods, and is one order of magnitude larger than in standard trade models that abstract from strategic price-setting. The estimates imply that trade with China increased U.S. consumer surplus by about $400,000 per displaced job, and that product categories catering to low-income consumers experienced larger price declines.

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  • Xavier Jaravel & Erick Sager, 2019. "What are the price effects of trade? Evidence from the US and implications for quantitative trade models," CEP Discussion Papers dp1642, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  • Handle: RePEc:cep:cepdps:dp1642
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    5. Raphael Auer & Ariel Burstein & Sarah M. Lein & Jonathan Vogel, 2022. "Unequal Expenditure Switching: Evidence from Switzerland," NBER Working Papers 29757, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Heid, Benedikt & Stähler, Frank, 2024. "Structural gravity and the gains from trade under imperfect competition: Quantifying the effects of the European Single Market," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 131(C).
    7. David Autor & David Dorn & Gordon Hanson, 2021. "On the Persistence of the China Shock," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 52(2 (Fall)), pages 381-476.
    8. Benny Kleinman & Ernest Liu & Stephen J. Redding, 2020. "International Friends and Enemies," Working Papers 2020-29, Princeton University. Economics Department..
    9. Vrolijk, Kasper, 2023. "How does globalisation affect social cohesion?," IDOS Discussion Papers 5/2023, German Institute of Development and Sustainability (IDOS).
    10. Holger Breinlich & Elsa Leromain & Dennis Novy & Thomas Sampson, 2021. "Import liberalization as export destruction? Evidence from the United States," CEP Discussion Papers dp1779, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    11. Dorn, David & Levell, Peter, 2021. "Trade and Inequality in Europe and the US," CEPR Discussion Papers 16780, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Juan Blyde, 2021. "Import exposure and welfare effects from the expenditure channel: The case of Mexico," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(10), pages 2998-3024, October.
    13. Jon R. Neill, 2021. "Comparing Some Benefits and Costs from Eliminating the U.S. Trade Deficit with Low Wage Countries," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 27(2), pages 91-103, May.
    14. Diego A. Comin & Robert C. Johnson, 2020. "Offshoring and Inflation," NBER Working Papers 27957, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. César, Andrés & Falcone, Guillermo & Gasparini, Leonardo, 2021. "Costs and benefits of trade shocks: Evidence from Chilean local labor markets," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    16. Esposito, Federico & Hassan, Fadi, 2023. "Import competition, trade credit and financial frictions in general equilibrium," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 121378, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    17. Sébastien Houde & Wenjun Wang, 2022. "The Incidence of the U.S.-China Solar Trade War," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 22/372, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.

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    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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