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Technology, Market Structure and the Gains from Trade

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  • Giammario Impullitti
  • Omar Licandro
  • Pontus Rendahl

Abstract

We study the gains from trade in a model with oligopolistic competition, heterogeneous firms and innovation, and provide a formula to decompose the mechanism. The new insight we provide is that market concentration can be a welfare-relevant feature of market power above and beyond markup dispersion. Trade liberalisation increases foreign competition and reduces the number of active firms in the market, thereby increasing concentration. A more concentrated economy is more efficient due to increasing returns in production. Moreover, higher concentration produces a scale effect on firms’ incentives to innovate, which increases welfare via productivity improvements. In the calibrated version of the model we show that a trade-induced increase in concentration contributes substantially to the gains from trade, mostly via its stimulating effect on innovation. Sizeable gains also come from the reduction of the inefficiency produced by trade in identical goods; i.e. through a reduction in reciprocal dumping. Changes in markup dispersion, in contrast, have only negligible effects.

Suggested Citation

  • Giammario Impullitti & Omar Licandro & Pontus Rendahl, 2021. "Technology, Market Structure and the Gains from Trade," CESifo Working Paper Series 9022, CESifo.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_9022
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    Cited by:

    1. Impullitti, Giammario & Licandro, Omar & Rendahl, Pontus, 2022. "Technology, market structure and the gains from trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 135(C).
    2. Laurent Cavenaile & Pau Roldan-Blanco & Tom Schmitz, 2023. "International Trade and Innovation Dynamics with Endogenous Markups," The Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 133(651), pages 971-1004.
    3. Matias Covarrubias & Germán Gutiérrez & Thomas Philippon, 2019. "From Good to Bad Concentration? US Industries over the Past 30 Years," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2019, volume 34, pages 1-46, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Yu, Zhuangxiong & Cheng, Jiajia & Mukhopadhaya, Pundarik & Dong, Jiemiao, 2023. "Do information spillovers across products aggravate product market monopoly? An examination with Chinese data," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 125(C).
    5. Tchoffo, Rodrigue & Ngouhouo, Ibrahim & Nkemgha, Guivis, 2020. "Trade Liberalization and Macroeconomic Performance in Cameroon: An Imperfect Competition Approach," MPRA Paper 98558, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 09 Feb 2020.
    6. Gutiérrez, Germán & Jones, Callum & Philippon, Thomas, 2021. "Entry costs and aggregate dynamics," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(S), pages 77-91.
    7. Kenji Fujiwara, 2024. "Firm heterogeneity in competition among the big and the small," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 76(1), pages 147-166, January.
    8. Giammario Impullitti & Richard Kneller & Danny McGowan, 2020. "Demand‐Driven Technical Change and Productivity Growth: Theory and Evidence FROM the Energy Policy Act," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(2), pages 328-363, June.
    9. Germán Gutiérrez & Callum Jones & Thomas Philippon, 2019. "Entry Costs and the Macroeconomy," NBER Working Papers 25609, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Kyung In Hwang, 2022. "The pro‐competitive effects of foreign firm entry: Evidence from the Korean retail sector," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(5), pages 1587-1613, May.
    11. Bingxue Wang, 2024. "Towards a welfare model of trade and multinational firms with oligopolistic competition," International Journal of Economic Theory, The International Society for Economic Theory, vol. 20(1), pages 120-155, March.
    12. Impullitti, Giammario, 2022. "Credit constraints, selection and productivity growth," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 111(C).
    13. Luca Macedoni & Vladimir Tyazhelnikov, 2024. "Oligopoly and oligopsony in international trade," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 57(2), pages 401-429, May.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    gains from trade; heterogeneous firms; oligopoly; innovation; endogenous markups; market concentration;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O41 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models

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