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Sex Segregation in U.S. Manufacturing

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Listed:
  • Kenneth R Troske
  • William J Carrington

Abstract

This paper studies interplant sex segregation in the U.S. manufacturing industry. The study differs from previous work in that we have detailed information on the characteristics of both workers and firms, and because we measure segregation in a new and better way. We report three main findings. First, there is a substantial amount of interplant sex segregation in the U.S. manufacturing industry, although segregation is far from complete. Second, we find that female managers tend to work in the same plants as female supervisees, even once we control for other plant characteristics. And finally, we find that interplant segregation can account for a substantial fraction of the male/female wage gap in the manufacturing industry, particularly among blue-collar workers.

Suggested Citation

  • Kenneth R Troske & William J Carrington, 1996. "Sex Segregation in U.S. Manufacturing," Working Papers 96-4, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  • Handle: RePEc:cen:wpaper:96-4
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    File URL: https://www2.census.gov/ces/wp/1996/CES-WP-96-04.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kenneth R Troske & William J Carrington, 1992. "Gender Segregation Small Firms," Working Papers 92-13, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau, revised May 1993.
    2. Kevin Lang, 1986. "A Language Theory of Discrimination," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 101(2), pages 363-382.
    3. Smith, James P & Welch, Finis, 1984. "Affirmative Action and Labor Markets," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(2), pages 269-301, April.
    4. Kevin Reilly & Tony Wirjanto, 1999. "Does More Mean Less? The Male/Female Wage Gap and the Proportion of Females at the Establishment Level," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 32(4), pages 906-929, August.
    5. Mincer, Jacob & Polachek, Solomon, 1974. "Family Investment in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages 76-108, Part II, .
    6. repec:hoo:wpaper:e-95-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. William J. Carrington & Kenneth R. Troske, 1995. "Gender Segregation in Small Firms," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(3), pages 503-533.
    8. Macpherson, David A & Hirsch, Barry T, 1995. "Wages and Gender Composition: Why Do Women's Jobs Pay Less?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(3), pages 426-471, July.
    9. Mark Doms & Timothy Dunne & Kenneth R. Troske, 1997. "Workers, Wages, and Technology," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(1), pages 253-290.
    10. Hellerstein, Judith K & Neumark, David & Troske, Kenneth R, 1999. "Wages, Productivity, and Worker Characteristics: Evidence from Plant-Level Production Functions and Wage Equations," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(3), pages 409-446, July.
    11. David Neumark, 1988. "Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
    12. Johnson, George & Solon, Gary, 1986. "Estimates of the Direct Effects of Comparable Worth Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1117-1125, December.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Judith K. Hellerstein & David Neumark, 2008. "Workplace Segregation in the United States: Race, Ethnicity, and Skill," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 459-477, August.
    2. Wooden, Mark, 2001. "Union Wage Effects in the Presence of Enterprise Bargaining," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 77(236), pages 1-18, March.
    3. Stepan Jurajda, 2000. "Gender Wage Gap and Segregation in Late Transition," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 306, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    4. Kimberly Bayard & Judith Hellerstein & David Neumark & Kenneth Troske, 2003. "New Evidence on Sex Segregation and Sex Differences in Wages from Matched Employee-Employer Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(4), pages 887-922, October.
    5. Judith Hellerstein & David Neumark & Melissa McInerney, 2008. "Changes in Workplace Segregation in the United States between 1990 and 2000: Evidence from Matched Employer-Employee Data," NBER Chapters,in: The Analysis of Firms and Employees: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, pages 163-195 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Madhu S. Mohanty, 2003. "An Alternative Explanation for the Equality of Male and Female Unemployment Rates in the U.S. Labor Market in the Late 1980s," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 29(1), pages 69-92, Winter.
    7. Jurajda, Stepan, 2003. "Gender wage gap and segregation in enterprises and the public sector in late transition countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 199-222, June.
    8. Diego F. Angel-Urdinola & Quentin Wodon, 2006. "The Gender Wage Gap and Poverty in Colombia," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 20(4), pages 721-739, December.
    9. Marie Drolet, 2002. "Can the Workplace Explain Canadian Gender Pay Differentials?," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 28(s1), pages 41-63, May.
    10. repec:eee:labchp:v:3:y:1999:i:pb:p:2629-2710 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Vieira, José António Cabral & Cardoso, Ana Rute & Portela, Miguel, 2003. "Recruitment and Pay at the Establishment Level: Gender Segregation and the Wage Gap in Portugal," IZA Discussion Papers 789, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. Sami Napari, 2006. "The Early Career Gender Wage Gap," CEP Discussion Papers dp0738, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.

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    Keywords

    CES; economic; research; micro; data; microdata; chief; economist;

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