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Recruitment and Pay at the Establishment Level: Gender Segregation and the Wage Gap in Portugal

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  • Vieira, José António Cabral

    () (University of the Azores)

  • Cardoso, Ana Rute

    () (IAE Barcelona (CSIC))

  • Portela, Miguel

    () (University of Minho)

Abstract

This paper aims at quantifying the trend in worker segregation at the establishment level and its impact on wages in Portugal over a fifteen year period. We concentrate on the gender dimension, to answer the questions: have changes in recruitment policies at the establishment level resulted in higher gender segregation in the labour market? What is the impact of segregation on wages? Is that impact different for men and women? A large linked employer-employee data set is used. Systematic and random components of segregation are computed. We use standard wage decomposition techniques to evaluate the impact of the composition of the labour force at the establishment level on wages. Results reveal a high degree of systematic gender segregation. A higher proportion of females in the establishment lowers females' wages while, on the contrary, it raises males' wages. Between mid-80s and late-90s, the contribution of the gender composition of the workforce within the establishment to the wage gap increased, though fluctuating within that period. The evidence gathered lends support to the taste-based model of employer behaviour.

Suggested Citation

  • Vieira, José António Cabral & Cardoso, Ana Rute & Portela, Miguel, 2003. "Recruitment and Pay at the Establishment Level: Gender Segregation and the Wage Gap in Portugal," IZA Discussion Papers 789, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp789
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. William J. Carrington & Kenneth R. Troske, 1998. "Sex Segregation in U.S. Manufacturing," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 51(3), pages 445-464, April.
    2. Kenneth R Troske & William J Carrington, 1992. "Gender Segregation Small Firms," Working Papers 92-13, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau, revised May 1993.
    3. Michael Kremer, 1993. "The O-Ring Theory of Economic Development," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 551-575.
    4. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226041162, April.
    5. Kevin Reilly & Tony Wirjanto, 1999. "Does More Mean Less? The Male/Female Wage Gap and the Proportion of Females at the Establishment Level," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 32(4), pages 906-929, August.
    6. Kiker, B. F. & Santos, Maria C., 1991. "Human capital and earnings in Portugal," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 187-203, September.
    7. Erica L. Groshen, 1991. "The Structure of the Female/Male Wage Differential: Is It Who You Are, What You Do, or Where You Work?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 26(3), pages 457-472.
    8. Carrington, William J & Troske, Kenneth R, 1997. "On Measuring Segregation in Samples with Small Units," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(4), pages 402-409, October.
    9. David Neumark, 1988. "Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
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    Cited by:

    1. Pilar González & Maria Clementina Santos & Luís Delfim Santos, 2005. "The Gender Wage Gap in Portugal: Recent Evolution and Decomposition," CEF.UP Working Papers 0505, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    2. Alessandro Cigno & Annalisa Luporini & Anna Pettini, 2004. "Hidden information problems in the design of family allowances," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 17(4), pages 645-655, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    systematic segregation; random segregation; wage inequality; gender;

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • J7 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination

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