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Gender segregation and the wage gap in Portugal: an analysis at the establishment level

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  • José Vieira
  • Ana Cardoso

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  • Miguel Portela

Abstract

Using a large linked employer-employee data set, this paper aims at quantifying the trend in worker segregation at the establishment level and its impact on wages in Portugal over a fifteen year period. We concentrate on the gender dimension, to answer the questions: What is the level of gender segregation across establishments in the Portuguese labor market and how has it evolved over time? What is the impact of segregation on wages? Is that impact different for men and women? Systematic and random components of segregation are computed. We use standard wage decomposition techniques to evaluate the impact of the composition of the labor force at the establishment level on wages. The results reveal a high degree of systematic gender segregation. A higher proportion of females in the establishment lowers females’ wages while, on the contrary, it raises males’ wages. The evidence gathered is consistent with the taste-based model of employer behavior and with the theory of sorting of workers across establishments based on their productivity. Copyright Springer 2005

Suggested Citation

  • José Vieira & Ana Cardoso & Miguel Portela, 2005. "Gender segregation and the wage gap in Portugal: an analysis at the establishment level," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 3(2), pages 145-168, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jecinq:v:3:y:2005:i:2:p:145-168
    DOI: 10.1007/s10888-005-4495-8
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kremer, M & Maskin, E, 1996. "Wage Inequality and Segregation by Skill," Working papers 96-23, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    2. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    3. Kevin Reilly & Tony Wirjanto, 1999. "Does More Mean Less? The Male/Female Wage Gap and the Proportion of Females at the Establishment Level," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 32(4), pages 906-929, August.
    4. Hutchens, Robert, 2001. "Numerical measures of segregation: desirable properties and their implications," Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 13-29, July.
    5. Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimuller, Josef, 1996. "Immigration and the Earnings of Young Native Workers," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 48(3), pages 473-491, July.
    6. Kimberly Bayard & Judith Hellerstein & David Neumark & Kenneth Troske, 2003. "New Evidence on Sex Segregation and Sex Differences in Wages from Matched Employee-Employer Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(4), pages 887-922, October.
    7. Cotton, Jeremiah, 1988. "On the Decomposition of Wage Differentials," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(2), pages 236-243, May.
    8. Carrington, William J & Troske, Kenneth R, 1997. "On Measuring Segregation in Samples with Small Units," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(4), pages 402-409, October.
    9. Silber, Jacques, 1992. "Occupational Segregation Indices in the Multidimensional Case: A Note," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 68(202), pages 276-277, September.
    10. Ana Rute Cardoso & Pedro Portugal, 2005. "Contractual Wages and the Wage Cushion under Different Bargaining Settings," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 23(4), pages 875-902, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mendes, Rute & van den Berg, Gerard J. & Lindeboom, Maarten, 2010. "An empirical assessment of assortative matching in the labor market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 919-929, December.
    2. Atencio,Andrea & Posadas,Josefina, 2015. "Gender gap in pay in the Russian Federation : twenty years later, still a concern," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7407, The World Bank.
    3. Guillaume Horny & Rute Mendes & Gerard J. van den Berg, 2012. "Job Durations With Worker- and Firm-Specific Effects: MCMC Estimation With Longitudinal Employer--Employee Data," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(3), pages 468-480, March.
    4. Ana Rute Cardoso & Rudolf Winter-Ebmer, 2007. "Mentoring and Segregation: Female-Led Firms and Gender Wage Policies," Economics working papers 2007-20, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    5. Heinze, Anja, 2009. "Earnings of Men and Women in Firms with a Female Dominated Workforce: What Drives the Impact of Sex Segregation on Wages?," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-012, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    6. repec:spr:empeco:v:53:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s00181-016-1130-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Aurora Galego & João Pereira, 2010. "Evidence On Gender Wage Discrimination In Portugal: Parametric And Semi‐Parametric Approaches," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 56(4), pages 651-666, December.
    8. Raquel Vale Mendes, 2009. "Gender wage differentials and occupational distribution," Notas Económicas, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, issue 29, pages 26-40, June.

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