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Evidence On Gender Wage Discrimination In Portugal: Parametric And Semi‐Parametric Approaches

Listed author(s):
  • Aurora Galego
  • João Pereira

In this paper we use two alternative approaches to study the extent of gender wage discrimination in Portugal. Both methods involve the estimation of wage equations for males and females and the Blinder [1973] and Oaxaca [1973] decomposition. However, to take into account possible sample selection bias, we consider both parametric and semi-parametric methods. First, we consider a parametric approach that relies on distributional assumptions about the distribution of the error terms in the model (Vella (1992, 1998) and Wooldridge (1998)). Within this approach, if the distributional assumption is not satisfied, the parameters? estimates may be inconsistent. Secondly, we apply Li and Wooldridge [2002] semi-parametric estimator, which does not assume any known distribution on the joint distribution of the errors of the wage equation and of the sample selection equation; the distribution has an unknown form and is estimated through non-parametric kernel techniques.We employ micro data for Portugal from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). The results from both approaches provide evidence in favour of the existence of gender wage discrimination in Portugal. However, the extent of labour market discrimination decreases when sample selection bias corrections are taken into account.

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Article provided by International Association for Research in Income and Wealth in its journal Review of Income and Wealth.

Volume (Year): 56 (2010)
Issue (Month): 4 (December)
Pages: 651-666

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Handle: RePEc:bla:revinw:v:56:y:2010:i:4:p:651-666
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  1. James J. Heckman, 1976. "The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 5, number 4, pages 475-492 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Powell, James L, 1986. "Symmetrically Trimmed Least Squares Estimation for Tobit Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(6), pages 1435-1460, November.
  3. Ponthieux S. & Meurs D., 2005. "The Gender Wage Gap in Europe: Women, Men and the Public Sector," Working Papers ERMES 0504, ERMES, University Paris 2.
  4. Khan, Shakeeb & Powell, James L., 2001. "Two-step estimation of semiparametric censored regression models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 103(1-2), pages 73-110, July.
  5. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-161, January.
  6. Li, Qi & Wooldridge, Jeffrey M., 2002. "Semiparametric Estimation Of Partially Linear Models For Dependent Data With Generated Regressors," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(03), pages 625-645, June.
  7. Chen, Songnian, 1997. "Semiparametric estimation of the Type-3 Tobit model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 1-34, September.
  8. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
  9. Francis Vella, 1998. "Estimating Models with Sample Selection Bias: A Survey," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 127-169.
  10. Christofides, Louis N, et al, 2003. "Recent Two-Stage Sample Selection Procedures with an Application to the Gender Wage Gap," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 21(3), pages 396-405, July.
  11. John Xu Zheng, 1996. "A consistent test of functional form via nonparametric estimation techniques," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 75(2), pages 263-289, December.
  12. José Vieira & Ana Cardoso & Miguel Portela, 2005. "Gender segregation and the wage gap in Portugal: an analysis at the establishment level," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 3(2), pages 145-168, August.
  13. Shoshana Neuman & Ronald Oaxaca, 2004. "Wage Decompositions with Selectivity-Corrected Wage Equations: A Methodological Note," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 2(1), pages 3-10, April.
  14. Vella, F, 1992. "Simple Tests for Sample Selection Bias in Censored and Discrete Choice Models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(4), pages 413-421, Oct.-Dec..
  15. Oaxaca, Ronald L. & Ransom, Michael R., 1994. "On discrimination and the decomposition of wage differentials," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 5-21, March.
  16. Li, Q. & Wang, Suojin, 1998. "A simple consistent bootstrap test for a parametric regression function," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 145-165, August.
  17. Kenneth Y. Chay & James L. Powell, 2001. "Semiparametric Censored Regression Models," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 29-42, Fall.
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