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How does fiscal policy affect monetary policy in emerging market countries?

  • Edda Zoli
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    This paper analyses how fiscal policy affects monetary policy in emerging economies. First, it conducts a test for fiscal dominance, and finds that the evidence points clearly to a regime of fiscal dominance in the case of Argentina and Brazil during the 1990s and early 2000s, while for the other countries in the sample the results are mixed. Next, the paper evaluates whether monetary policy accommodates fiscal policy, by assessing whether fiscal variables enter significantly in the central bank's reaction function. The findings indicate that in the emerging markets under consideration the conduct of monetary policy is not directly affected by changes in real primary balances. Then, the paper explores another mechanism through which fiscal policy could affect monetary policy in an emerging economy, by looking at the impact of fiscal policy on country premium and exchange rates. The empirical analysis is conducted through an event study, assessing the impact of news concerning fiscal variables and fiscal policy, on sovereign spread and exchange rate daily movements in Brazil, during the period surrounding the 2002 macroeconomic crisis. The results show that fiscal events have significantly influenced sovereign spreads and exchange rates in that period. Furthermore, fiscal policy actions appear to have contributed to movements in the exchange rates more than unanticipated monetary policy manoeuvres. The findings also suggest that, at that time, fiscal policy might have pushed the economy into an equilibrium in which increases in the policy intervention rate were likely to be associated with a depreciation, rather than an appreciation of the exchange rate.

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    Paper provided by Bank for International Settlements in its series BIS Working Papers with number 174.

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    Length: 51 pages
    Date of creation: Apr 2005
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:bis:biswps:174
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    1. M S Mohanty & Michela Scatigna, 2003. "Countercyclical fiscal policy and central banks," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Fiscal issues and central banking in emerging economies, volume 20, pages 38-70 Bank for International Settlements.
    2. Kitchen, John, 1996. "Domestic and international financial market responses to Federal deficit announcements," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 239-254, April.
    3. António Afonso, 2002. "Disturbing the fiscal theory of the price level: Can it fit the eu-15?," 10th International Conference on Panel Data, Berlin, July 5-6, 2002 B4-3, International Conferences on Panel Data.
    4. Pierpaolo Benigno & Michael Woodford, 2004. "Optimal monetary and fiscal policy: a linear-quadratic approach," International Finance Discussion Papers 806, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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    8. Olivier Blanchard, 2004. "Fiscal Dominance and Inflation Targeting: Lessons from Brazil," NBER Working Papers 10389, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    10. Martin Uribe & Vivian Z. Yue, 2003. "Country Spreads and Emerging Countries: Who Drives Whom?," NBER Working Papers 10018, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Reinhart, Carmen & Calvo, Guillermo & Leiderman, Leonardo, 1993. "“Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin America: The Role of External Factors," MPRA Paper 7125, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    14. Michael Woodford, 1996. "Control of the Public Debt: A Requirement for Price Stability?," NBER Working Papers 5684, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Barry Eichengreen & Ashoka Mody, 1998. "What Explains Changing Spreads on Emerging-Market Debt: Fundamentals or Market Sentiment?," NBER Working Papers 6408, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Bennett T. McCallum, 1997. "Issues in the Design of Monetary Policy Rules," NBER Working Papers 6016, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Favero, Carlo A. & Giavazzi, Francesco, 2004. "Inflation Targeting and Debt: Lessons from Brazil," CEPR Discussion Papers 4376, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    18. André Minella & Paulo Springer de Freitas & Ilan Goldfajn & Marcelo Kfoury Muinhos, 2003. "Inflation Targeting in Brazil: Constructing Credibility under Exchange Rate Volatility," Working Papers Series 77, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    19. Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Alejandro M. Werner, 2002. "Inflation Targeting in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico: Performance, Credibility, and the Exchange Rate," ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, ECONOMIA JOURNAL OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, January.
    20. Richard Cantor & Frank Packer, 1995. "Sovereign credit ratings," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 1(Jun).
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