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La Productividad y sus Determinantes: El Caso de la Industria Colombiana

  • Juan José Echavarría

    ()

  • María Angélica Arbeláez
  • María Fernanda Rosales

Se analiza en este estudio la dinámica la productividad de la industria colombiana en el período 1981-2002. Para ello, se realizan cálculos de la productividad total de los factores (PTF) usando técnicas semiparamétricas con datos a nivel de planta. Se muestra que la productividad multifactorial no cayó en Colombia ni en los 1980s ni en los 1990s cuando se miden adecuadamente los factores e insumos y cuando se trabaja con metodologías econométricas adecuadas. Pero puede llegarse fácilmente a la conclusión contraria cuando se trabaja con técnicas econométricas estándar como mínimos cuadrados ordinarios o efectos fijos, o cuando no se realizan los “ajustes” necesarios por utilización de capacidad, por valoración incorrecta del stock inicial de capital, y por la calificación de la mano de obra. El trabajo sugiere que la productividad creció más en los 1990s que en los 1980s, en buena parte gracias al impacto de las reformas económicas adoptadas a comienzo de la década, y que la evolución favorable de la productividad ha estado asociada con la apertura “hacia dentro” (i.e. altas importaciones y bajos aranceles y para-aranceles) más que con las mayores exportaciones y subsidios a las exportaciones. En Colombia innovan más las plantas que crecen (o grandes), aquellas con alta inversión (o con alta relación capital-trabajo), con bajos niveles de deuda, y aquellas que operan en sectores poco concentrados. La inversión extranjera no ha sido un factor importante en la innovación de las empresas.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 374.

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