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El Proceso Colombiano de Desindustrialización

  • Juan José Echavarría


  • Mauricio Villamizar


  • colaboración Juanita González

El proceso colombiano de industrialización tuvo corta duración. El despegue comenzó en la década de los años 1930s, cuarenta años más tarde que en Argentina, Brasil, Chile o México, y la industria (especialmente la moderna) perdió dinamismo desde los 1960s (empleo) y 1970s (producción). Se trata de dinámicas mundiales parcialmente relacionadas con la productividad relativa del sector y con el impacto de la política económica. La política económica jugó un papel central en la dinámica de la industria. El bajo desarrollo del sector financiero ha restringido el crecimiento del sector, obligando a las firmas a depender exageradamente de utilidades reinvertidas costosas, aún cuando la liberalización financiera de los 1990s tuvo un impacto positivo en materia de productividad. Algo similar sucedió con la apertura arancelaria y paraarancelaria adoptada en ese mismo período. La evidencia empírica confirma que hoy se cuenta con un sector industrial moderno mucho más competitivo, preparado para afrontar el reto de la globalización.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 361.

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Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:361
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