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Capital and labour (mis)allocation in the euro area: Some stylized facts and determinants

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Listed:
  • Elisa Gamberoni

    () (European Central Bank)

  • Claire Giordano

    () (Banca d'Italia)

  • Paloma Lopez-Garcia

    () (European Central Bank)

Abstract

We analyse the evolution of capital and labour (mis)allocation across firms in five euro-area countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and Spain) and eight main sectors of the economy during the period 2002-2012. Three key stylized facts stand out. First, in all countries except Germany, capital allocation worsened over time whereas the efficiency of labour reallocation did not change significantly. Second, the observed increase in capital misallocation has been particularly marked in services compared with industry. Third, misallocation of both labour and capital decreased in all countries in 2009 and again for some countries/sectors in 2011-2012. We then take stock of the possible drivers of input misallocation dynamics in a standard panel regression framework. Restrictive bank lending standards and heightened demand uncertainty in certain years led to growth in capital misallocation, whereas since 2002 overall deregulation in both the product and labour markets has helped dampen input misallocation dynamics. Controlling for all variables, the Great Recession per se improved the allocative efficiency of both capital and labour.

Suggested Citation

  • Elisa Gamberoni & Claire Giordano & Paloma Lopez-Garcia, 2016. "Capital and labour (mis)allocation in the euro area: Some stylized facts and determinants," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 349, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdi:opques:qef_349_16
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    Cited by:

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    4. Corrado, Carol & Haskel, Jonathan & Jona-Lasinio, Cecilia, 2019. "Productivity growth, capital reallocation and the financial crisis: Evidence from Europe and the US," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1-1.
    5. Claire Giordano, Paloma Lopez-Garcia, 2018. "Is corruption efficiency-enhancing? A case study of the Central and Eastern European region," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 15(1), pages 119-164, June.
    6. Fabiano Schivardi & Enrico Sette & Guido Tabellini, 2017. "Credit misallocation during the European financial crisis," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1139, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    7. Alimov, Behzod, 2019. "Private debt, public debt, and capital misallocation," IWH-CompNet Discussion Papers 7/2019, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    8. Dan Andrews & Filippos Petroulakis, 2017. "Breaking the Shackles: Zombie Firms, Weak Banks and Depressed Restructuring in Europe," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1433, OECD Publishing.
    9. Patrice Ollivaud & Yvan Guillemette & David Turner, 2018. "Investment as a transmission mechanism from weak demand to weak supply and the post-crisis productivity slowdown," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1466, OECD Publishing.
    10. Evguenia Bessonova & Anna Tsvetkova, 2019. "Productivity convergence trends within Russian industries: firm-level evidence," Bank of Russia Working Paper Series wps51, Bank of Russia.
    11. Giordano, Claire & Marinucci, Marco & Silvestrini, Andrea, 2019. "The macro determinants of firms' and households' investment: Evidence from Italy," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 118-133.
    12. Tosapol Apaitan & Nasha Ananchotikul & Piti Disyatat, 2017. "Structural Transformation in Thailand: A Perspective Through Product Innovation," PIER Discussion Papers 72, Puey Ungphakorn Institute for Economic Research, revised Oct 2017.
    13. Michael Fidora & Claire Giordano & Martin Schmitz, 2021. "Real Exchange Rate Misalignments in the Euro Area," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 71-107, February.
    14. Adamopoulou Effrosyni & Bobbio Emmanuele & Philippis Marta De & Giorgi Federico, 2019. "Reallocation and the Role of Firm Composition Effects on Aggregate Wage Dynamics," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Sciendo & Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 8(1), pages 5-22, June.
    15. Andrea Linarello & Andrea Petrella, 2017. "Productivity and Reallocation: Evidence from the Universe of Italian Firms," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 32, pages 116-136, Spring.
    16. Daan Steenkamp, 2018. "Factor Substitution and Productivity in New Zealand," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 94(304), pages 64-79, March.
    17. Crafts, Nicholas & Mills, Terence C., 2017. "Trend TFP Growth in the United States: Forecasts versus Outcomes," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 329, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
    18. Francesco Manaresi & Nicola Pierri, 2018. "Credit supply and productivity growth," BIS Working Papers 711, Bank for International Settlements.
    19. Francesco Manaresi & Nicola Pierri, 2019. "Credit Supply and Productivity Growth," IMF Working Papers 2019/107, International Monetary Fund.
    20. Konstantins Benkovskis, 2018. "Misallocation, productivity and fragmentation of production: the case of Latvia," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 49(2), pages 187-206, June.
    21. Bańbura, Marta & Albani, Maria & Ambrocio, Gene & Bursian, Dirk & Buss, Ginters & de Winter, Jasper & Gavura, Miroslav & Giordano, Claire & Júlio, Paulo & Le Roux, Julien & Lozej, Matija & Malthe-Thag, 2018. "Business investment in EU countries," Occasional Paper Series 215, European Central Bank.
    22. Francesco Manaresi & Nicola Pierri, 2018. "Credit supply and productivity growth," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1168, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    23. Daniela Marconi & Christian Upper, 2017. "Capital misallocation and financial development: A sector-level analysis," BIS Working Papers 671, Bank for International Settlements.
    24. Alice, Albonico & Roberta, Cardani & Patrizio, Tirelli, 2017. "Debunking the Myth of Southern Profligacy. A DSGE Analysis of Business Cycles in the EMU’s Big Four," Working Papers 373, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Jan 2018.
    25. Matteo Bugamelli & Francesca Lotti & Monica Amici & Emanuela Ciapanna & Fabrizio Colonna & Francesco D’Amuri & Silvia Giacomelli & Andrea Linarello & Francesco Manaresi & Giuliana Palumbo & Filippo Sc, 2018. "Productivity growth in Italy: a tale of a slow-motion change," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 422, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    total factor productivity; allocative efficiency; capital; labour; Great Recession;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • D61 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Allocative Efficiency; Cost-Benefit Analysis
    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence

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