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Housing and Tax Policy

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  • Sami Alpanda
  • Sarah Zubairy

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the effects of housing-related tax policy measures on macroeconomic aggregates using a dynamic general-equilibrium model. The model features borrowing and lending across heterogeneous households, financial frictions in the form of collateral constraints tied to house prices, and a rental housing market alongside owner-occupied housing. Using our model, we analyze the effects of changes in housing-related tax policy measures on the level of output, tax revenue and household debt, along with other macroeconomic aggregates. The tax policies we consider are (i) increasing property tax rates, (ii) eliminating the mortgage interest deduction, (iii) eliminating the depreciation allowance for rental income, (iv) instituting taxation of imputed rental income from owner-occupied housing and (v) eliminating the property tax deduction. We find that among these fiscal tools, eliminating the mortgage interest deduction would be the most effective in raising tax revenue, and in reducing household debt, per unit of output lost. On the other hand, eliminating the depreciation allowance for rental income would be the least effective. Our experiments also highlight the differential welfare impact of each tax policy on savers, borrowers and renters.

Suggested Citation

  • Sami Alpanda & Sarah Zubairy, 2013. "Housing and Tax Policy," Staff Working Papers 13-33, Bank of Canada.
  • Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:13-33
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    1. Housing and Tax Policy
      by Christian Zimmermann in NEP-DGE blog on 2013-09-26 19:57:10

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    Cited by:

    1. Bahadir, Berrak & De, Kuhelika & Lastrapes, William D., 2020. "Household debt, consumption and inequality," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 109(C).
    2. Bielecki, Marcin & Stähler, Nikolai, 2018. "Labor tax reductions in Europe: The role of property taxation," Discussion Papers 30/2018, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    3. Kolasa Marcin, 2021. "On the Limits of Macroprudential Policy," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 21(1), pages 281-307, January.
    4. Sami Alpanda & Gino Cateau & Césaire Meh, 2018. "A policy model to analyze macroprudential regulations and monetary policy," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 51(3), pages 828-863, August.
    5. Stähler, Nikolai, 2019. "Who benefits from using property taxes to finance a labor tax wedge reduction?," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C).
    6. Funke, Michael & Kirkby, Robert & Mihaylovski, Petar, 2018. "House prices and macroprudential policy in an estimated DSGE model of New Zealand," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 152-171.
    7. Alpanda, Sami & Zubairy, Sarah, 2017. "Addressing household indebtedness: Monetary, fiscal or macroprudential policy?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 47-73.
    8. Eunseong Ma & Sarah Zubairy, 2021. "Homeownership And Housing Transitions: Explaining The Demographic Composition," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 62(2), pages 599-638, May.
    9. Nicola Borri & Pietro Reichlin, 2021. "Optimal Taxation with Home Ownership and Wealth Inequality," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 40, pages 64-84, April.
    10. Muñoz, Manuel A., 2020. "Macroprudential policy and the role of institutional investors in housing markets," Working Paper Series 2454, European Central Bank.
    11. Zhang, Yahong, 2019. "Household debt, financial intermediation, and monetary policy," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 230-257.
    12. Guo, Shen & Jiang, Zheng, 2021. "The welfare implications of housing-related tax policies in China," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 135-153.
    13. Pavlína Kirschnerová & Jana Janoušková, 2018. "Are Tax Expenditures of Individuals Only a Tool of Tax Optimisation?," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 24(3), pages 239-252, August.
    14. Hamed Ghiaie & Jean-François Rouillard, 2018. "Housing Taxation and Financial Intermediation," Cahiers de recherche 18-01, Departement d'Economique de l'École de gestion à l'Université de Sherbrooke, revised Nov 2018.
    15. Chu, Shiou-Yen, 2018. "Macroeconomic policies and housing market in Taiwan," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 404-421.
    16. Hirsch, Patrick, 2019. "Heterogeneous rental markets in a DSGE model of the euro area," VfS Annual Conference 2019 (Leipzig): 30 Years after the Fall of the Berlin Wall - Democracy and Market Economy 203633, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    17. Agustin Redonda, 2016. "Tax Expenditures and Sustainability. An Overview," Discussion Notes 1603, Council on Economic Policies.
    18. Asimakopoulos, Panagiotis & Asimakopoulos, Stylianos, 2019. "Fiscal policy with banks and financial frictions," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 94-109.
    19. Vinicius Phillipe de Albuquerquemello & Cássio Besarria, 2020. "Rental market and macroeconomics: evidence for the US," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 48(3), pages 587-603, August.
    20. Andrea Camilli, 2020. "Labor market institutions and homeownership," Working Papers 440, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised May 2020.
    21. Gregory Bauer, 2014. "International House Price Cycles, Monetary Policy and Risk Premiums," Staff Working Papers 14-54, Bank of Canada.
    22. Margarta Rubio, 2014. "Rented vs. Owner-Occupied Housing and Monetary Policy," Discussion Papers 2014/09, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
    23. Ghoddusi, Hamed & Afkhami, Mohamad, 2019. "Valuation of mortgage interest deductibility under uncertainty: An option pricing approach," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 102-122.
    24. Mr. Pau Rabanal, 2018. "An Estimated DSGE Model to Analyze Housing Market Policies in Hong Kong SAR," IMF Working Papers 2018/090, International Monetary Fund.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Economic models; Fiscal Policy;

    JEL classification:

    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • H24 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies
    • R38 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Government Policy

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