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Optimization in a Simulation Setting: Use of Function Approximation in Debt Strategy Analysis

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  • David Jamieson Bolder
  • Tiago Rubin

Abstract

This paper provides an analysis of how a firm's decision to serve a foreign market by exporting or by engaging in foreign direct investment (FDI) affects firm productivity, when productivity is endogeneous as a function of training. The main result of our paper is that, with endogeneous productivity, exporting results in lower productivity than does FDI, but exporting may result in higher or lower employment and output than does FDI. We also show that FDI has lower employment, higher training, higher wages and higher productivity than does production for the home market. A further interesting and unexpected result of our model is that exporting results in the same level of training and productivity as does production for the home market. However, under the same demand conditions, the exporting firm employs less labour for foreign production than for home production and, consequently, output for the foreign market is lower than output for the home market. In addition, we investigate the firm's decision to serve the foreign market by exporting or by engaging in FDI and determine parameter values for which either regime is chosen.

Suggested Citation

  • David Jamieson Bolder & Tiago Rubin, 2007. "Optimization in a Simulation Setting: Use of Function Approximation in Debt Strategy Analysis," Staff Working Papers 07-14, Bank of Canada.
  • Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:07-14
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Andrew B. Bernard & Jonathan Eaton & J. Bradford Jensen & Samuel Kortum, 2003. "Plants and Productivity in International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(4), pages 1268-1290, September.
    2. Fosfuri, Andrea & Motta, Massimo & Ronde, Thomas, 2001. "Foreign direct investment and spillovers through workers' mobility," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 205-222, February.
    3. David Jamieson Bolder, 2003. "A Stochastic Simulation Framework for the Government of Canada's Debt Strategy," Staff Working Papers 03-10, Bank of Canada.
    4. Sofronis K. Clerides & Saul Lach & James R. Tybout, 1998. "Is Learning by Exporting Important? Micro-Dynamic Evidence from Colombia, Mexico, and Morocco," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(3), pages 903-947.
    5. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
    6. David Jamieson Bolder, 2006. "Modelling Term-Structure Dynamics for Risk Management: A Practitioner's Perspective," Staff Working Papers 06-48, Bank of Canada.
    7. David J. Bolder & Grahame Johnson & Adam Metzler, 2004. "An Empirical Analysis of the Canadian Term Structure of Zero-Coupon Interest Rates," Staff Working Papers 04-48, Bank of Canada.
    8. Bee Yan Aw & Sukkyun Chung & Mark J. Roberts, 1998. "Productivity and the Decision to Export: Micro Evidence from Taiwan and South Korea," NBER Working Papers 6558, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. David Jamieson Bolder, 2001. "Affine Term-Structure Models: Theory and Implementation," Staff Working Papers 01-15, Bank of Canada.
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    11. Mansoorian, Arman & Myers, Gordon M., 1993. "Attachment to home and efficient purchases of population in a fiscal externality economy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 117-132, August.
    12. Baldwin, John R. & Gu, Wulong, 2003. "Participation in Export Markets and Productivity Performance in Canadian Manufacturing," Economic Analysis (EA) Research Paper Series 2003011e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    13. Peter Sephton, 2005. "Forecasting inflation using the term structure and MARS," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 199-202.
    14. Peter Sephton, 2001. "Forecasting recessions: can we do better on MARS?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 39-49.
    15. Barron, John M & Black, Dan A & Loewenstein, Mark A, 1989. "Job Matching and On-the-Job Training," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(1), pages 1-19, January.
    16. Elhanan Helpman & Marc J. Melitz & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2004. "Export Versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 300-316, March.
    17. John M. Barron & Mark C. Berger & Dan A. Black, 1999. "Do Workers Pay for On-The-Job Training?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(2), pages 235-252.
    18. Bolder, David & Streliski, David, 1999. "Yield Curve Modelling at the Bank of Canada," Technical Reports 84, Bank of Canada.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:eneeco:v:71:y:2018:i:c:p:273-281 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Andrea Consiglio & Stavros Zenios, 2015. "Risk profiles for re-profiling the sovereign debt of crisis countries," Journal of Risk Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 16(1), pages 2-26, January.
    3. Johannes Holler, 2013. "Funding Strategies of Sovereign Debt Management: A Risk Focus," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 2, pages 51-74.
    4. Balibek, Emre & Köksalan, Murat, 2010. "A multi-objective multi-period stochastic programming model for public debt management," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 205(1), pages 205-217, August.
    5. Serhat Yuksel & Sinemis Zengin, 2017. "Influencing Factors of Net Interest Margin in Turkish Banking Sector," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 7(1), pages 178-191.
    6. David Jamieson Bolder & Yuliya Romanyuk, 2008. "Combining Canadian Interest-Rate Forecasts," Staff Working Papers 08-34, Bank of Canada.
    7. Udaibir S. Das & Yinqiu Lu & Michael G. Papaioannou & Iva Petrova, 2013. "Sovereign Risk and Asset and Liability Management—Conceptual Issues," Journal of Reviews on Global Economics, Lifescience Global, vol. 2, pages 330-355.
    8. David Jamieson Bolder & Simon Deeley, 2011. "The Canadian Debt-Strategy Model: An Overview of the Principal Elements," Discussion Papers 11-3, Bank of Canada.
    9. K. Batu Tunay, 2010. "Banking Crises and Early Warning Systems: A Model Suggestion for Turkish Banking Sector," Journal of BRSA Banking and Financial Markets, Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency, vol. 4(1), pages 9-46.
    10. Consiglio Andrea & Zenios Stavros A., 2015. "Risk Management Optimization for Sovereign Debt Restructuring," Journal of Globalization and Development, De Gruyter, vol. 6(2), pages 181-213, December.
    11. repec:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:1:p:132-:d:125900 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    International topics; Labour markets; Productivity;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business

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