Combining Canadian Interest-Rate Forecasts
Model risk is a constant danger for financial economists using interest-rate forecasts for the purposes of monetary policy analysis, portfolio allocations, or risk-management decisions. Use of multiple models does not necessarily solve the problem as it greatly increases the work required and still leaves the question "which model forecast should one use?" Simply put, structural shifts or regime changes (not to mention possible model misspecifications) make it difficult for any single model to capture all trends in the data and to dominate all alternative approaches. To address this issue, we examine various techniques for combining or averaging alternative models in the context of forecasting the Canadian term structure of interest rates using both yield and macroeconomic data. Following Bolder and Liu (2007), we study alternative implementations of four empirical term structure models: this includes the Diebold and Li (2003) approach and three associated generalizations. The analysis is performed using more than 400 months of data ranging from January 1973 to July 2007. We examine a number of model-averaging schemes in both frequentist and Bayesian settings, both following the literature in this field (such as de Pooter, Ravazzolo and van Dijk (2007)) in addition to introducing some new combination approaches. The forecasts from individual models and combination schemes are evaluated in a number of ways; preliminary results show that model averaging generally assists in mitigating model risk, and that simple combination schemes tend to outperform their more complex counterparts. Such findings carry significant implications for central-banking analysis: a unified approach towards accounting for model uncertainty can lead to improved forecasts and, consequently, better decisions.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: 613 782-8845
Fax: 613 782-8874
Web page: http://www.bank-banque-canada.ca/
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Hall, Stephen G. & Mitchell, James, 2007. "Combining density forecasts," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 1-13.
- Qiang Dai & Kenneth J. Singleton, 2000. "Specification Analysis of Affine Term Structure Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(5), pages 1943-1978, October.
- Gary Koop & Simon Potter, 2004. "Forecasting in dynamic factor models using Bayesian model averaging," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 7(2), pages 550-565, December.
- repec:dgr:uvatin:20070028 is not listed on IDEAS
- Kapetanios, George & Labhard, Vincent & Price, Simon, 2006.
"Forecasting using predictive likelihood model averaging,"
Elsevier, vol. 91(3), pages 373-379, June.
- George Kapetanios & Vincent Labhard & Simon Price, 2006. "Forecasting Using Predictive Likelihood Model Averaging," Working Papers 567, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
- Francis X. Diebold & Glenn D. Rudebusch & S. Boragan Aruoba, 2004.
"The Macroeconomy and the Yield Curve: A Dynamic Latent Factor Approach,"
NBER Working Papers
10616, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Diebold, Francis X. & Rudebusch, Glenn D. & Borag[caron]an Aruoba, S., 2006. "The macroeconomy and the yield curve: a dynamic latent factor approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 131(1-2), pages 309-338.
- George Kapetanios & Vincent Labhard & Simon Price, 2005.
"Forecasting using Bayesian and information theoretic model averaging: an application to UK inflation,"
Bank of England working papers
268, Bank of England.
- Kapetanios, George & Labhard, Vincent & Price, Simon, 2008. "Forecasting Using Bayesian and Information-Theoretic Model Averaging: An Application to U.K. Inflation," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 26, pages 33-41, January.
- Kapetanios, G. & Labhard, V. & Price, S., 2007. "Forecasting using Bayesian and information theoretic model averaging: an application to UK inflation," Working Papers 07/15, Department of Economics, City University London.
- George Kapetanios & Vincent Labhard & Simon Price, 2006. "Forecasting using Bayesian and Information Theoretic Model Averaging: An Application to UK Inflation," Working Papers 566, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
- David Bolder & Shudan Liu, 2007. "Examining Simple Joint Macroeconomic and Term-Structure Models: A Practitioner's Perspective," Working Papers 07-49, Bank of Canada.
- Andrew Ang & Sen Dong & Monika Piazzesi, 2005.
"No-arbitrage Taylor rules,"
Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Marco Aiolfi & Carlos Capistrán & Allan Timmermann, 2010.
2010-04, Banco de México.
- Robert B. Litterman, 1985.
"Forecasting with Bayesian vector autoregressions five years of experience,"
274, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Litterman, Robert B, 1986. "Forecasting with Bayesian Vector Autoregressions-Five Years of Experience," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 4(1), pages 25-38, January.
- Carmen Fernández & Eduardo Ley & Mark F. J. Steel, .
"Benchmark priors for Bayesian Model averaging,"
- Carmen Fernandez & E Ley & Mark F J Steel, 2004. "Benchmark priors for Bayesian models averaging," ESE Discussion Papers 66, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
- Carmen Fernandez & Eduardo Ley & Mark F.J. Steel, 1998. "Benchmark Priors for Bayesian Model Averaging," Econometrics 9804001, EconWPA, revised 31 Jul 1999.
- Swanson, Norman R & Zeng, Tian, 2001. "Choosing among Competing Econometric Forecasts: Regression-Based Forecast Combination Using Model Selection," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(6), pages 425-40, September.
- Nelson, Charles R & Siegel, Andrew F, 1987. "Parsimonious Modeling of Yield Curves," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(4), pages 473-89, October.
- Mark W. Watson & James H. Stock, 2004. "Combination forecasts of output growth in a seven-country data set," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(6), pages 405-430.
- Mönch, Emanuel, 2005.
"Forecasting the yield curve in a data-rich environment: a no-arbitrage factor-augmented VAR approach,"
Working Paper Series
0544, European Central Bank.
- Moench, Emanuel, 2008. "Forecasting the yield curve in a data-rich environment: A no-arbitrage factor-augmented VAR approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 146(1), pages 26-43, September.
- Eklund, Jana & Karlsson, Sune, 2005.
"Forecast Combination and Model Averaging using Predictive Measures,"
Working Paper Series
191, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
- Jana Eklund & Sune Karlsson, 2007. "Forecast Combination and Model Averaging Using Predictive Measures," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2-4), pages 329-363.
- Eklund, Jana & Karlsson, Sune, 2005. "Forecast Combination and Model Averaging Using Predictive Measures," CEPR Discussion Papers 5268, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Ravazzolo, F. & van Dijk, H.K. & Verbeek, M.J.C.M., 2007. "Predictive gains from forecast combinations using time-varying model weights," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2007-26, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
- David Jamieson Bolder & Scott Gusba, 2002. "Exponentials, Polynomials, and Fourier Series: More Yield Curve Modelling at the Bank of Canada," Working Papers 02-29, Bank of Canada.
- David Jamieson Bolder, 2006. "Modelling Term-Structure Dynamics for Risk Management: A Practitioner's Perspective," Working Papers 06-48, Bank of Canada.
- Francis X. Diebold & Canlin Li, 2002.
"Forecasting the Term Structure of Government Bond Yields,"
Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers
02-34, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Diebold, Francis X. & Li, Canlin, 2006. "Forecasting the term structure of government bond yields," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 130(2), pages 337-364, February.
- Francis X. Diebold & Canlin Li, 2003. "Forecasting the Term Structure of Government Bond Yields," NBER Working Papers 10048, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Diebold, Francis X. & Li, Canlin, 2003. "Forecasting the term structure of government bond yields," CFS Working Paper Series 2004/09, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
- De Pooter, Michiel & Ravazzolo, Francesco & van Dijk, Dick, 2006. "Predicting the term structure of interest rates incorporating parameter uncertainty, model uncertainty and macroeconomic information," MPRA Paper 2512, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 03 Mar 2007.
- Andrea Carriero, 2007.
"Forecasting the Yield Curve Using Priors from No Arbitrage Affine Term Structure Models,"
612, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
- Andrea Carriero, 2011. "Forecasting The Yield Curve Using Priors From No‐Arbitrage Affine Term Structure Models," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 52(2), pages 425-459, 05.
- Kadiyala, K. Rao & Karlsson, Sune, 1994.
"Numerical Aspects of Bayesian VAR-modeling,"
SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance
12, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Kadiyala, K Rao & Karlsson, Sune, 1997. "Numerical Methods for Estimation and Inference in Bayesian VAR-Models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(2), pages 99-132, March-Apr.
- Min, C.K. & Zellner, A., 1992.
""Bayesian and Non-Bayesian Methods for Combining Models and Forecasts with Applications to Forecasting International Growth Rates","
90-92-23, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
- Min, Chung-ki & Zellner, Arnold, 1993. "Bayesian and non-Bayesian methods for combining models and forecasts with applications to forecasting international growth rates," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1-2), pages 89-118, March.
- Geweke, John & Whiteman, Charles, 2006. "Bayesian Forecasting," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, Elsevier.
- Andersson, Michael K & Karlsson, Sune, 2007.
"Bayesian Forecast Combination for VAR Models,"
2007:13, Örebro University, School of Business.
- Ang, Andrew & Piazzesi, Monika, 2003.
"A no-arbitrage vector autoregression of term structure dynamics with macroeconomic and latent variables,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 745-787, May.
- Andrew Ang & Monika Piazzesi, 2001. "A No-Arbitrage Vector Autoregression of Term Structure Dynamics with Macroeconomic and Latent Variables," NBER Working Papers 8363, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Peter Sephton, 2001. "Forecasting recessions: can we do better on MARS?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 39-49.
- Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 2002. "Macroeconomic Forecasting Using Diffusion Indexes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(2), pages 147-62, April.
- Gregory R. Duffee, 2002. "Term Premia and Interest Rate Forecasts in Affine Models," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 405-443, 02.
- Elliott, Graham & Timmermann, Allan G, 2007.
CEPR Discussion Papers
6158, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Li Fuchun & Tkacz Greg, 2004. "Combining Forecasts with Nonparametric Kernel Regressions," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(4), pages 1-18, December.
- David Jamieson Bolder & Tiago Rubin, 2007. "Optimization in a Simulation Setting: Use of Function Approximation in Debt Strategy Analysis," Working Papers 07-13, Bank of Canada.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:08-34. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.