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GINI DP 24: On gender gaps and self-fulfilling expectations: An alternative approach based on paid-for-training

  • Sara Rica

    ()

    (DFAE II, Universidad del Pais Vasco)

  • Juan Dolado

    ()

    (Universidad Carlos III)

  • Cecilia Garcia Peñalosa

    ()

    (Centre de la Vieille Charité, GREQAM)

This paper presents a model of self-fulfilling expectations by firms and households which generates multiplicity of equilibria in pay and housework time allocation for ex-ante identical spouses. Multiplicity arises from statistical discrimination exerted by firms in the provision of paid-for training to workers, rather than from incentive problems in the labor market. Employers´ beliefs about differences in spouses´ reactions to housework shocks lead symmetric (ungendered) and asymmetric (gendered) equilibria. We find that: (i) the ungendered equilibrium tends to prevail as aggregate productivity in the economy increases (regardless of the generosity of family aid policies), (ii) the ungendered equilibrium could yield higher welfare under some scenarios, and (iii) gender-neutral job subsidies are more effective that gender-targeted ones in removing the gendered equilibrium. JEL Classification: J16 and J71.

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Paper provided by AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies in its series GINI Discussion Papers with number 24.

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Date of creation: May 2012
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Handle: RePEc:aia:ginidp:24
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  1. Sara Rica & Juan Dolado & Vanesa Llorens, 2008. "Ceilings or floors? Gender wage gaps by education in Spain," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 777-778, July.
  2. Moro, Andrea & Norman, Peter, 2003. "Affirmative action in a competitive economy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(3-4), pages 567-594, March.
  3. Alberto Alesina & Andrea Ichino & Loukas Karabarbounis, 2007. "Gender Based Taxation and the Division of Family Chores," NBER Working Papers 13638, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Acemoglu, Daron & Pischke, Jörn-Steffen, 1996. "Why do Firms Train? Theory and Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 1460, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Stefania Albanesi & Claudia Olivetti, 2006. "Home Production, Market Production and the Gender Wage Gap: Incentives and Expectations," NBER Working Papers 12212, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Andrés Erosa & Luisa Fuster & Diego Restuccia, 2005. "A Quantitative Theory of the Gender Gap in Wages," Working Papers tecipa-199, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  7. Lommerud, Kjell Erik & Vagstad, Steinar, 2000. "Mommy Tracks and Public Policy: On Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and Gender Gaps in Promotion," CEPR Discussion Papers 2378, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Luca Flabbi, 2004. "Gender Discrimination Estimation in a Search Model with Matching and Bargaining," Working Papers gueconwpa~04-04-08, Georgetown University, Department of Economics.
  9. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," NBER Working Papers 7732, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Claudia Olivetti, 2006. "Changes in Women's Hours of Market Work: The Role of Returns to Experience," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 9(4), pages 557-587, October.
  11. Benoît Rapoport & Catherine Sofer & Anne Solaz, 2011. "Household production in a collective model: some new results," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 23-45, January.
  12. Michael Bittman & Paula England & Nancy Folbre & George Matheson, 2001. "When Gender Trumps Money: Bargaining and Time in Household Work," JCPR Working Papers 221, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
  13. Alan Manning & Joanna Swaffield, 2005. "The Gender Gap in Early Career Wage Growth," CEP Discussion Papers dp0700, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  14. Guner, Nezih & Kaygusuz, Remzi & Ventura, Gustavo, 2012. "Taxing women: A macroeconomic analysis," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 111-128.
  15. Joseph G. Altonji & James R. Spletzer, 1991. "Worker characteristics, job characteristics, and the receipt of on-the-job training," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 45(1), pages 58-79, October.
  16. Engineer, Merwan & Welling, Linda, 1999. "Human capital, true love, and gender roles: is sex destiny?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 155-178, October.
  17. Puhani, Patrick A. & Sonderhof, Katja, 2008. "The Effects of Maternity Leave Extension on Training for Young Women," IZA Discussion Papers 3820, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  18. Francois, Patrick, 1998. "Gender discrimination without gender difference: theory and policy responses," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 1-32, April.
  19. Andrea Bassanini & Anne Saint-Martin, 2008. "The Price of Prejudice: Labour Market Discrimination on the Grounds of Gender and Ethnicity," Working Papers halshs-00312794, HAL.
  20. Benoit Rapoport & Catherine Sofer & Anne Solaz, 2011. "Household Production in a Collective Model: Some New Results," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00687274, HAL.
  21. Anne B. Royalty, 1996. "The effects of job turnover on the training of men and women," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 49(3), pages 505-521, April.
  22. Becker, Gary S, 1985. "Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S33-58, January.
  23. John M. Barron & Dan A. Black & Mark A. Loewenstein, 1993. "Gender Differences in Training, Capital, and Wages," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(2), pages 343-364.
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