Impacts of Retailers’ Pricing Strategies for Produce Commodities on Farmer Welfare
The typical model of retail pricing for produce products assumes retailers set price equal to the farm price plus a certain markup. However, observations from scanner data indicate a large degree of price dispersion in the grocery retailing market. In addition to markup pricing behavior, we document three alternative leading pricing patterns: fixed (constant) pricing, periodic sale, and high-low pricing. Retail price variations under these alternative pricing regimes in general have little correlation with the farm price. How do retailers’ alternative pricing behaviors affect farmers’ welfare? Using markup pricing as the baseline case, we parameterize the model to reflect a prototypical fresh produce market and carry out a series of simulations under different pricing regimes. Our study shows that if harvest cost is sufficiently low, retail prices adjusting only partially, or not at all, to supply shocks tends to diminish farm income and exacerbate farm price volatility relative to the baseline case. However, we also find that if harvest cost is sufficiently large and the harvest-cost constraint places a lower bound on the farm price, increased farm price volatility induced by retailers’ alternative pricing strategies may result in higher farm income, compared to markup pricing. Furthermore, taking farmers’ risk attitude into account, higher income risk under alternative pricing strategies may offset the higher expected income, resulting in lower expected utility to risk-averse farmers. Our study is the first to evaluate the welfare implications for producers of the diversified pricing strategies that retailers utilize in practice and the resulting attenuation of the relationship between prices at retail and at the farm gate.
|Date of creation:||29 Jun 2009|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.iaae-agecon.org/|
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kaufman, Phillip R. & Handy, Charles R. & McLaughlin, Edward W. & Park, Kristen & Green, Geoffrey M., 2000. "Understanding The Dynamics Of Produce Markets: Consumption And Consolidation Grow," Agricultural Information Bulletins 33747, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
- Connor, John M., 1999. "Evolving Research On Price Competition In The Grocery Retailing Industry: An Appraisal," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 28(2), October.
- Lins, David A. & Gabriel, Stephen C. & Sonka, Steven T., 1981. "An Analysis Of The Risk Aversion Of Farm Operators: An Asset Portfolio Approach," Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 6(01), July.
- Levy, H & Markowtiz, H M, 1979. "Approximating Expected Utility by a Function of Mean and Variance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 308-17, June.
- Conlisk, John & Gerstner, Eitan & Sobel, Joel, 1984. "Cyclic Pricing by a Durable Goods Monopolist," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 99(3), pages 489-505, August.
- Daniel Hosken & David Reiffen, 2001. "Multiproduct retailers and the sale phenomenon," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(1), pages 115-137.
- Daniel Levy & Haipeng Allan Chen & Sourav Ray & Mark Bergen, 2004.
"Asymmetric Price Adjustment "in the Small:" An Implication of Rational Inattention,"
0407012, EconWPA, revised 11 May 2005.
- Daniel Levy & Haipeng (Allan) Chen & Sourav Ray & Mark Bergen, 2004. "Asymmetric Price Adjustment in the Small: An Implication of Rational Inattention," Working Papers 2004-08, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
- Daniel Levy & Hainpeng (Allan) Chen & Sourav RayAuthor-Name: Mark Bergen, 2004. "Asymmetric Price Adjustment in the Small: An Implication of Rational Inattention," Emory Economics 0408, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta).
- Banks, J. & Moorthy, S., 1994.
"A Model of Price Promotions with Consumer Search,"
95-01, Rochester, Business - Marketing Science.
- Friend, Irwin & Blume, Marshall E, 1975. "The Demand for Risky Assets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(5), pages 900-922, December.
- Elizabeth Powers & Nicholas Powers, 2001. "The Size and Frequency of Price Changes: Evidence from Grocery Stores," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 18(4), pages 397-416, June.
- Waugh, Frederick V., 1964. "Demand and Price Analysis," Technical Bulletins 171213, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
- Henneberry, Shida Rastegari & Piewthongngam, Kullapapruk & Qiang, Han, 1999. "Consumer Food Safety Concerns And Fresh Produce Consumption," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 24(01), July.
- Martin Pesendorfer, 2002. "Retail Sales: A Study of Pricing Behavior in Supermarkets," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(1), pages 33-66, January.
- Warner, Elizabeth J & Barsky, Robert B, 1995. "The Timing and Magnitude of Retail Store Markdowns: Evidence from Weekends and Holidays," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 321-52, May.
- Thomas Reardon & C. Peter Timmer & Christopher B. Barrett & Julio Berdegué, 2003. "The Rise of Supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1140-1146.
- Meyer, Jack, 1987. "Two-moment Decision Models and Expected Utility Maximization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 421-30, June.
- Eichner, Thomas, 2004. "A further remark on two-moment decision models and utility-representable preferences," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 435-436, November.
- Varian, Hal R, 1980. "A Model of Sales," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(4), pages 651-59, September.
- Sobel, Joel, 1984. "The Timing of Sales," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 353-68, July.
- George, P.S. & King, Gordon A., 1971. "Consumer Demand for Food Commodities in the United States with Projections for 1980," Monographs, University of California, Davis, Giannini Foundation, number 11936.
- Richard J. Sexton & Mingxia Zhang, 1996. "A Model of Price Determination for Fresh Produce with Application to California Iceberg Lettuce," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(4), pages 924-934.
- Wohlgenant, Michael K., 2001. "Marketing margins: Empirical analysis," Handbook of Agricultural Economics, in: B. L. Gardner & G. C. Rausser (ed.), Handbook of Agricultural Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 16, pages 933-970 Elsevier.
- Daniel Levy & Mark Bergen & Shantanu Dutta & Robert Venable, 2005.
"The Magnitude of Menu Costs: Direct Evidence from Large U.S. Supermarket Chains,"
- Levy, Daniel, et al, 1997. "The Magnitude of Menu Costs: Direct Evidence from Large U.S. Supermarket Chains," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(3), pages 791-825, August.
- Lal, Rajiv & Matutes, Carmen, 1994. "Retail Pricing and Advertising Strategies," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67(3), pages 345-70, July.
- MacDonald, James M, 2000. "Demand, Information, and Competition: Why Do Food Prices Fall at Seasonal Demand Peaks?," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(1), pages 27-45, March.
- Lach, Saul & Tsiddon, Daniel, 1996.
"Staggering and Synchronization in Price-Setting: Evidence from Multiproduct Firms,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1175-96, December.
- Saul Lach & Daniel Tsiddon, 1994. "Staggering and Synchronization in Price-Setting: Evidence from Multipro-duct Firms," NBER Working Papers 4759, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ping Zhang & Stanley M. Fletcher & Dale H. Carley, 1995. "Peanut price transmission asymmetry in peanut butter," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 13-20.
- Azzeddine M. Azzam, 1999. "Asymmetry and Rigidity in Farm-Retail Price Transmission," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 81(3), pages 525-533.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:iaae09:51720. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.