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Nonlinearities in the World Vegetable Oil Price System: El Nino Effects

  • Ubilava, David
  • Holt, Matthew T.

In this research we estimate the effect of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over time on market dynamics for eight major vegetable oil prices. We estimate a system for vegetable oil prices by using a smooth transition vector error correction model (STVECM) to analyze impacts of ENSO events on production, and, more interestingly, their asymmetric nature. The results of estimated Exponential STVECM and Quadratic STAR models, respectively for the system of oil price equations and the ENSO variable regressions, suggest a smooth transition between ENSO regimes, and provide a better overall fit to the data than do linear models. Effects of the ENSO shock are analyzed using generalized impulse-response functions (GIRFs). The non-linear nature of these shocks is apparent, as the GIRFs are observed to be asymmetric depending on whether ENSO shocks are positive or negative. For most vegetable oil prices an ENSO shock has a permanent effect, meaning that prices advance to a new equilibrium level. Generally, a positive ENSO shock results in increased prices, and the opposite is true for the negative ENSO shock. The magnitude of the price change is largest for the coconut oil and palm kernel oil, and is the smallest for the ground nut oil. Also, it takes approximately two years for prices to stabilize at a new equilibrium level after the shock.

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File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49360
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Paper provided by Agricultural and Applied Economics Association in its series 2009 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, 2009, Milwaukee, Wisconsin with number 49360.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea09:49360
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  1. Allan D. Brunner, 1998. "El Nino and world primary commodity prices: warm water or hot air?," International Finance Discussion Papers 608, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  2. Wolfram Schlenker & Michael J. Roberts, 2006. "Nonlinear Effects of Weather on Corn Yields ," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 28(3), pages 391-398.
  3. Letson, David & McCullough, B.D., 2001. "Enso And Soybean Prices: Correlation Without Causality," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 33(03), December.
  4. Hall, Anthony D. & Skalin, Joakim & Teräsvirta, Timo, 1998. "A nonlinear time series model of El Niño," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 263, Stockholm School of Economics.
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  6. In, Francis & Inder, Brett, 1997. "Long‐run Relationships Between World Vegetable Oil Prices," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 41(4), December.
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  8. Terasvirta, T & Anderson, H M, 1992. "Characterizing Nonlinearities in Business Cycles Using Smooth Transition Autoregressive Models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(S), pages S119-36, Suppl. De.
  9. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
  10. Eitrheim, Øyvind & Teräsvirta, Timo, 1995. "Testing the Adequacy of Smooth Transition Autoregressive Models," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 56, Stockholm School of Economics.
  11. Koop, Gary & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Potter, Simon M., 1996. "Impulse response analysis in nonlinear multivariate models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 119-147, September.
  12. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
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