IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/wly/canjec/v51y2018i4p1221-1256.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

On the effects of unilateral environmental policy on offshoring in multi‐stage production processes

Author

Listed:
  • Oliver Schenker
  • Simon Koesler
  • Andreas Löschel

Abstract

We extend the literature on global supply chains by analyzing if and how unilateral environmental regulation induces offshoring. We develop an analytical model of two‐stage production processes that can be distributed between two countries and investigate unilateral emission pricing and its supplementation with border carbon taxes. In contrast to existing final good models, we are able to show how impacts of regulation differ across the different stages of the supply chain, depending on the interplay of comparative advantages and general equilibrium effects. To get a more comprehensive picture, we subsequently apply a computable general equilibrium model that includes a representation of international supply chains. We find heterogeneous but mostly positive effects of a unilateral carbon emission reduction by the European Union on the degree of vertical specialization of European industries. Border taxes are successful in protecting upstream industries, but with negative side effects for downstream industries. À propos des effets d’une politique environnementale unilatérale sur la délocalisation dans des processus de production à plusieurs étapes. Les auteurs développent une extension de la littérature spécialisée sur les chaînes logistiques globales en analysant si et comment une réglementation environnementale unilatérale induit la délocalisation. Ils développent un modèle analytique du processus de production à deux étapes qui peut se répartir sur deux pays. On examine l’introduction unilatérale d’une tarification sur les émissions à laquelle s’ajoutent des taxes sur le carbone aux frontières. Contrairement à ce qui se passe dans un modèle de produits finaux, on montre comment les impacts de la réglementation diffèrent d’un stage à l’autre dans la chaîne logistique selon la nature des interactions entre les avantages comparatifs et les effets d’équilibre général. Pour se donner un portrait plus complet, on utilise un modèle d’équilibre général calculable qui inclut une représentation de la chaîne logistique internationale. On découvre des effets hétérogènes mais surtout positifs d’une réduction unilatérale des émissions de carbone par l’Union européenne sur le degré de spécialisation verticale des industries européennes. Des taxes aux frontières réussissent à protéger les industries en amont, mais avec des effets négatifs collatéraux pour les industries en aval.

Suggested Citation

  • Oliver Schenker & Simon Koesler & Andreas Löschel, 2018. "On the effects of unilateral environmental policy on offshoring in multi‐stage production processes," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 51(4), pages 1221-1256, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:canjec:v:51:y:2018:i:4:p:1221-1256
    DOI: 10.1111/caje.12354
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/caje.12354
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/caje.12354?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hertel, Thomas & Hummels, David & Ivanic, Maros & Keeney, Roman, 2007. "How confident can we be of CGE-based assessments of Free Trade Agreements?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 611-635, July.
    2. Rutherford, Thomas F, 1999. "Applied General Equilibrium Modeling with MPSGE as a GAMS Subsystem: An Overview of the Modeling Framework and Syntax," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 14(1-2), pages 1-46, October.
    3. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi‐Hansberg, 2012. "Task Trade Between Similar Countries," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 80(2), pages 593-629, March.
    4. Marcel Timmer & Abdul A. Erumban & Reitze Gouma & Bart Los & Umed Temurshoev & Gaaitzen J. de Vries & I–aki Arto & Valeria Andreoni AurŽlien Genty & Frederik Neuwahl & JosŽ M. Rueda?Cantuche & Joseph , 2012. "The World Input-Output Database (WIOD): Contents, Sources and Methods," IIDE Discussion Papers 20120401, Institue for International and Development Economics.
    5. Bogmans, Christian, 2015. "Can the terms of trade externality outweigh free-riding? The role of vertical linkages," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 115-128.
    6. Christoph Böhringer & André Müller & Jan Schneider, 2015. "Carbon Tariffs Revisited," Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(4), pages 629-672.
    7. Gene M. Grossman & Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2008. "Trading Tasks: A Simple Theory of Offshoring," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(5), pages 1978-1997, December.
    8. Kei-Mu Yi, 2003. "Can Vertical Specialization Explain the Growth of World Trade?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(1), pages 52-102, February.
    9. Brian R. Copeland & M. Scott Taylor, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(3), pages 755-787.
    10. Arik Levinson, 2009. "Technology, International Trade, and Pollution from US Manufacturing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(5), pages 2177-2192, December.
    11. Peters, Glen P., 2008. "From production-based to consumption-based national emission inventories," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 13-23, March.
    12. Arnaud Costinot & Jonathan Vogel & Su Wang, 2013. "An Elementary Theory of Global Supply Chains," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 80(1), pages 109-144.
    13. -, 2009. "The economics of climate change," Sede Subregional de la CEPAL para el Caribe (Estudios e Investigaciones) 38679, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    14. Richard Baldwin & Javier Lopez-Gonzalez, 2015. "Supply-chain Trade: A Portrait of Global Patterns and Several Testable Hypotheses," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(11), pages 1682-1721, November.
    15. Benarroch, Michael & Weder, Rolf, 2006. "Intra-industry trade in intermediate products, pollution and internationally increasing returns," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 675-689, November.
    16. James R. MARKUSEN, 2021. "International Externalities And Optimal Tax Structures," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: BROADENING TRADE THEORY Incorporating Market Realities into Traditional Models, chapter 16, pages 341-355, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    17. Dietzenbacher, Erik & Pei, Jiansuo & Yang, Cuihong, 2012. "Trade, production fragmentation, and China's carbon dioxide emissions," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 88-101.
    18. Berthold Herrendorf & Richard Rogerson & ?kos Valentinyi, 2013. "Two Perspectives on Preferences and Structural Transformation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(7), pages 2752-2789, December.
    19. Dornbusch, Rudiger & Fischer, Stanley & Samuelson, Paul A, 1977. "Comparative Advantage, Trade, and Payments in a Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(5), pages 823-839, December.
    20. Erik Dietzenbacher & Bart Los & Robert Stehrer & Marcel Timmer & Gaaitzen de Vries, 2013. "The Construction Of World Input-Output Tables In The Wiod Project," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(1), pages 71-98, March.
    21. Simon Koesler & Michael Schymura, 2015. "Substitution Elasticities In A Constant Elasticity Of Substitution Framework - Empirical Estimates Using Nonlinear Least Squares," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(1), pages 101-121, March.
    22. Bednar-Friedl, Birgit & Schinko, Thomas & Steininger, Karl W., 2012. "The relevance of process emissions for carbon leakage: A comparison of unilateral climate policy options with and without border carbon adjustment," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(S2), pages 168-180.
    23. Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
    24. Fischer, Carolyn & Fox, Alan K., 2012. "Comparing policies to combat emissions leakage: Border carbon adjustments versus rebates," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 199-216.
    25. Koesler, Simon & Pothen, Frank, 2013. "The Basic WIOD CGE Model: A computable general equilibrium model based on the World Input-Output Database," ZEW Dokumentationen 13-04, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Kaltenegger, Oliver, 2020. "What drives total real unit energy costs globally? A novel LMDI decomposition approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 261(C).
    2. Kaltenegger, Oliver & Löschel, Andreas & Pothen, Frank, 2017. "The effect of globalisation on energy footprints: Disentangling the links of global value chains," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(S1), pages 148-168.
    3. Fang, Yuan & Yu, Yugang & Shi, Ye & Liu, Jie, 2020. "The effect of carbon tariffs on global emission control: A global supply chain model," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 133(C).
    4. Ward, Hauke & Radebach, Alexander & Vierhaus, Ingmar & Fügenschuh, Armin & Steckel, Jan Christoph, 2017. "Reducing global CO2 emissions with the technologies we have," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 201-217.
    5. Kaltenegger, Oliver, 2019. "What drives total real unit energy costs globally? A novel LMDI decomposition approach," MEP Discussion Papers 110, University of Münster, Münster Center for Economic Policy (MEP).
    6. Baccianti, Claudio, 2021. "Essays in economic growth and climate policy," Other publications TiSEM e5415454-40c2-4154-991e-6, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    7. Zhang, Danyang & Wang, Hui & Löschel, Andreas & Zhou, Peng, 2021. "The changing role of global value chains in CO2 emission intensity in 2000–2014," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Bart Los & Marcel P. Timmer & Gaaitzen J. Vries, 2015. "How Global Are Global Value Chains? A New Approach To Measure International Fragmentation," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(1), pages 66-92, January.
    2. Luca Salvatici & Silvia Nenci, 2017. "New features, forgotten costs and counterfactual gains of the international trading system," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 592-633.
    3. Victor Kummritz, 2015. "Global Value Chains: Benefiting the Domestic Economy?," IHEID Working Papers 02-2015, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
    4. Inga Heiland, 2017. "Five Essays on International Trade, Factor Flows and the Gains from Globalization," ifo Beiträge zur Wirtschaftsforschung, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 74.
    5. Aleksandra Parteka & Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, 2020. "Wage response to global production links: evidence for workers from 28 European countries (2005–2014)," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 156(4), pages 769-801, November.
    6. David Hummels & Jakob R. Munch & Chong Xiang, 2018. "Offshoring and Labor Markets," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 56(3), pages 981-1028, September.
    7. Bridgman, Benjamin, 2012. "The rise of vertical specialization trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 133-140.
    8. João Amador & Sónia Cabral, 2014. "Global Value Chains: Surveying Drivers, Measures and Impacts," Working Papers w201403, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    9. E. M. Bosker & Bastian Westbrock, 2014. "A theory of trade in a global production network," Working Papers 14-14, Utrecht School of Economics.
    10. Marcel P Timmer & Sébastien Miroudot & Gaaitzen J de Vries, 2019. "Functional specialisation in trade," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(1), pages 1-30.
    11. Koesler, Simon & Swales, Kim & Turner, Karen, 2016. "International spillover and rebound effects from increased energy efficiency in Germany," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 444-452.
    12. Bogmans, C.W.J., 2011. "Can globalization outweigh free-riding?," Serie Research Memoranda 0048, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
    13. Fally, Thibault & Hillberry, Russell, 2018. "A Coasian model of international production chains," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 299-315.
    14. Marcel P. Timmer & Erik Dietzenbacher & Bart Los & Robert Stehrer & Gaaitzen J. Vries, 2015. "An Illustrated User Guide to the World Input–Output Database: the Case of Global Automotive Production," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(3), pages 575-605, August.
    15. Bogmans, Christian, 2015. "Can the terms of trade externality outweigh free-riding? The role of vertical linkages," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 115-128.
    16. Hermeling, Claudia & Klement, Jan Henrik & Koesler, Simon & Köhler, Jonathan & Klement, Dorothee, 2015. "Sailing into a dilemma," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 34-53.
    17. Koesler, Simon, 2014. "Specifying parameters in computable general equilibrium models using optimal fingerprint detection methods," ZEW Discussion Papers 14-092, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    18. MILE 02, Anirudh Shingal, 2015. "Labour market effects of integration into GVCs: Review of literature," Papers 1109, World Trade Institute.
    19. Dazhong Cheng & Jian Wang & Zhiguo Xiao, 2022. "Free trade agreements partnership and value chain linkages: Evidence from China," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(8), pages 2532-2559, August.
    20. Philipp Ehrl, 2018. "Task trade and employment patterns: The offshoring and onshoring of Brazilian firms," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(3), pages 235-266, April.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wly:canjec:v:51:y:2018:i:4:p:1221-1256. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://doi.org/10.1111/(ISSN)1540-5982 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://doi.org/10.1111/(ISSN)1540-5982 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.