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The Indigenous Test Score Gap in Bolivia and Chile

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  • McEwan, Patrick J

Abstract

This article analyzes the magnitude and determinants of the indigenous test score gap in Bolivia and Chile (i.e., the mean difference in academic achievement between indigenous and nonindigenous children). In both countries, it finds that the gap ranges between 0.3 and 0.5 standard deviations, favoring nonindigenous children. A decomposition of achievement regressions that include classroom fixed effects suggests that 50%-70% of the difference is attributable to differences in schools and classrooms that are attended by indigenous and nonindigenous students. A smaller proportion (20%-40%) is attributable to varying endowments of family variables like parental education. The smallest proportion of the gap (10%-20%) is unexplained. Several implications for policy are discussed in light of the results.

Suggested Citation

  • McEwan, Patrick J, 2004. "The Indigenous Test Score Gap in Bolivia and Chile," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(1), pages 157-190, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucp:ecdecc:y:2004:v:53:i:1:p:157-90
    DOI: 10.1086/423257
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    Cited by:

    1. Beatrice Schindler Rangvid, 2010. "Source country differences in test score gaps: evidence from Denmark," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 269-295.
    2. Agostini, Claudio A. & Brown, Philip H. & Roman, Andrei C., 2010. "Poverty and Inequality Among Ethnic Groups in Chile," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 1036-1046, July.
    3. repec:aru:wpaper:200601 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Claudio A. Agostini, & Philip H. Brown, & Andrei Roman, 2008. "Estimating Poverty for Indigenous Groups in Chile by Matching Census and Survey Data," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp932, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    5. Bauchet, Jonathan & Undurraga, Eduardo A. & Reyes-García, Victoria & Behrman, Jere R. & Godoy, Ricardo A., 2018. "Conditional cash transfers for primary education: Which children are left out?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 1-12.
    6. John Richards & Jennifer Hove & Kemi Afolabi, 2008. "Understanding the Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal Gap in Student Performance: Lessons From British Columbia," C.D. Howe Institute Commentary, C.D. Howe Institute, issue 276, December.
    7. David Martínez Rojas & Wilson Muñoz Henríquez & Carlos Mondaca Rojas, 2021. "Racism, Interculturality, and Public Policies: An Analysis of the Literature on Migration and the School System in Chile, Argentina, and Spain," SAGE Open, , vol. 11(1), pages 21582440209, January.
    8. Castro, Juan F. & Rolleston, Caine, 2018. "The contribution of early childhood and schools to cognitive gaps: New evidence from Peru," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 144-164.
    9. Quiñones, Esteban J., 2006. "The Indigenous Heterogeneity of Oportunidades: Ample or Insufficient Human Capital Accumulation?," MPRA Paper 19539, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Raymundo M. Campos Vázquez & Alma S. Santillán Hernández, 2016. "Análisis de diferencias en puntajes en la prueba ENLACE entre niños y niñas en el sistema escolar mexicano," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 31(1), pages 65-123.
    11. Hynsjö, Disa & Damon, Amy, 2016. "Bilingual education in Peru: Evidence on how Quechua-medium education affects indigenous children's academic achievement," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 116-132.
    12. Dries Lens & François Levrau, 2020. "Can Pre-entry Characteristics Account for the Ethnic Attainment Gap? An Analysis of a Flemish University," Research in Higher Education, Springer;Association for Institutional Research, vol. 61(1), pages 26-50, February.
    13. Barrera-Osorio, F. & García-Moreno, V. & Patrinos, H., & Porta, E., 2011. "Using the Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition Technique to Analyze Learning Outcomes Changes over Time: An Application to Indonesia’s Results in PISA Mathematics," Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 11(3).
    14. Gevrek, Z. Eylem & Gevrek, Deniz & Neumeier, Christian, 2020. "Explaining the gender gaps in mathematics achievement and attitudes: The role of societal gender equality," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    15. Harry Anthony Patrinos & Emmanuel Skoufias, 2007. "Economic Opportunities for Indigenous Peoples in Latin America : Conference Edition," World Bank Publications - Reports 8019, The World Bank Group.
    16. Claudio Agostini & Phillip Brown & Andrei Roman, 2008. "Poverty Estimating Poverty for Indigenous Groups by Matching Census and Survey Data," ILADES-UAH Working Papers inv207, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Business.
    17. Gevrek, Z. Eylem & Seiberlich, Ruben R., 2014. "Semiparametric decomposition of the gender achievement gap: An application for Turkey," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 27-44.
    18. Aline Coudouel & Stefano Paternostro, 2005. "Analyzing the Distributional Impact of Reforms : A Practioner's Guide to Trade, Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy, Utility Provision, Agricultural Markets, Land Policy and Education, Volume 1," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 7251, December.
    19. Hernandez-Zavala, Martha & Patrinos, Harry Anthony & Sakellariou, Chris & Shapiro, Joseph, 2006. "Quality of schooling and quality of schools for indigenous students in Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3982, The World Bank.
    20. Juan F. Castro, 2015. "Linear decompositions of cognitive achievement gaps a cautionary note and an illustration using peruvian data," Working Papers 15-08, Centro de Investigación, Universidad del Pacífico.
    21. Harinder Kohli & Claudio Loser & Anil Sood (ed.), 2013. "Latin America 2040 — Breaking Away from Complacency: An Agenda for Resurgence — Second Edition," Books, Emerging Markets Forum, edition 2, number latam2040v2, March.
    22. Santibañez, Lucrecia, 2016. "The indigenous achievement gap in Mexico: The role of teacher policy under intercultural bilingual education," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 63-75.
    23. Patrinos, Harry Anthony & Skoufias, Emmanuel & Lunde, Trine, 2007. "Indigenous peoples in Latin America : economic opportunities and social networks," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4227, The World Bank.
    24. Jeffrey Puryear & Tamara Ortega Goodspeed, 2011. "How Can Education Help Latin America Develop?," Global Journal of Emerging Market Economies, Emerging Markets Forum, vol. 3(1), pages 111-134, January.

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