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Regulatory instruments to control environmental externalities from the transport sector

  • Timilsina, Govinda R.
  • Dulal, Hari B.

This study reviews regulatory instruments designed to reduce environmental externalities from the transport sector. We find that the main regulatory instruments used in practice are fuel economy standards, vehicle emission standards and fuel quality standards. While industrialized countries have introduced all three standards with strong enforcement mechanisms, most developing countries have yet to introduce fuel economy standards. The emission standards introduced by many developing countries to control local air pollutants follow either the EU or U.S. standards. Fuel quality standards, particularly for gasoline and diesel, have been introduced in many countries mandating 2 to 10 percent blending of biofuels, 10 to 50 times reduction of sulfur from 1996 levels and banning lead contents. Although inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs are in place in both industrialized and developing countries to enforce regulatory standards, these programs have faced several challenges in developing countries due to a lack of resources. The study also highlights several factors affecting the selection of regulatory instruments, such as countries’ environmental priorities and institutional capacities.

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Article provided by ISTIEE, Institute for the Study of Transport within the European Economic Integration in its journal European Transport / Trasporti Europei.

Volume (Year): (2009)
Issue (Month): 41 ()
Pages: 80-112

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Handle: RePEc:sot:journl:y:2009:i:41:p:80-112
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  1. Fischer, Carolyn, 2008. "Comparing flexibility mechanisms for fuel economy standards," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 3106-3114, August.
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  8. Dowlatabadi, Hadi & Lave, Lester B & Russell, Armistead G, 1996. "A free lunch at higher CAFE? A review of economic, environmental and social benefits," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 253-264, March.
  9. Austin, David & Dinan, Terry, 2005. "Clearing the air: The costs and consequences of higher CAFE standards and increased gasoline taxes," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 562-582, November.
  10. Bezdek, Roger H. & Wendling, Robert M., 2005. "Potential long-term impacts of changes in US vehicle fuel efficiency standards," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 407-419, February.
  11. de Palma, Andre & Kilani, Moez, 2008. "Regulation in the automobile industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 150-167, January.
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  14. Greene, David L, 1998. "Why CAFE worked," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(8), pages 595-613, July.
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