Regulatory instruments to control environmental externalities from the transport sector
This study reviews regulatory instruments designed to reduce environmental externalities from the transport sector. We find that the main regulatory instruments used in practice are fuel economy standards, vehicle emission standards and fuel quality standards. While industrialized countries have introduced all three standards with strong enforcement mechanisms, most developing countries have yet to introduce fuel economy standards. The emission standards introduced by many developing countries to control local air pollutants follow either the EU or U.S. standards. Fuel quality standards, particularly for gasoline and diesel, have been introduced in many countries mandating 2 to 10 percent blending of biofuels, 10 to 50 times reduction of sulfur from 1996 levels and banning lead contents. Although inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs are in place in both industrialized and developing countries to enforce regulatory standards, these programs have faced several challenges in developing countries due to a lack of resources. The study also highlights several factors affecting the selection of regulatory instruments, such as countries’ environmental priorities and institutional capacities.
Volume (Year): (2009)
Issue (Month): 41 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| |
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Dargay, Joyce & Gately, Dermot, 1997. "Vehicle ownership to 2015: Implications for energy use and emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(14-15), pages 1121-1127, December.
- de Palma, Andre & Kilani, Moez, 2008. "Regulation in the automobile industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 150-167, January.
- Bonnel, Patrick, 1995. "Urban car policy in Europe," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 83-95, April.
- Harrington, Winston, 1997. "Fuel Economy and Motor Vehicle Emissions," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 240-252, July.
- Bezdek, Roger H. & Wendling, Robert M., 2005. "Potential long-term impacts of changes in US vehicle fuel efficiency standards," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 407-419, February.
- Kirby, Eric G, 1995. "An evaluation of the effectiveness of US CAFE policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 107-109, February.
- Dowlatabadi, Hadi & Lave, Lester B & Russell, Armistead G, 1996. "A free lunch at higher CAFE? A review of economic, environmental and social benefits," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 253-264, March.
- Austin, David & Dinan, Terry, 2005. "Clearing the air: The costs and consequences of higher CAFE standards and increased gasoline taxes," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 562-582, November.
- Zachariadis, Theodoros, 2006. "On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(14), pages 1773-1785, September.
- Fischer, Carolyn, 2008. "Comparing flexibility mechanisms for fuel economy standards," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 3106-3114, August.
- Scholl, Lynn & Schipper, Lee & Kiang, Nancy, 1996. "CO2 emissions from passenger transport : A comparison of international trends from 1973 to 1992," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 17-30, January.
- Greene, David L, 1998. "Why CAFE worked," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(8), pages 595-613, July.
- A. Greening, Lorna & Greene, David L. & Difiglio, Carmen, 2000. "Energy efficiency and consumption -- the rebound effect -- a survey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(6-7), pages 389-401, June.
- Proost, Stef & Van Dender, Kurt, 2001. "The welfare impacts of alternative policies to address atmospheric pollution in urban road transport," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 383-411, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sot:journl:y:2009:i:41:p:80-112. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Romeo Danielis)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.