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Short-run Pricing Strategies to Increase Corporate Average Fuel Economy


  • Greene, David L


Since 1974, the average fuel economy of new cars has doubled from fourteen to twenty-eight miles per gallon. Shifts in sales to more fuel efficient models within a product line accounted for little of the improvement. This paper explores the use of pricing strategies to shift sales to achieve a legislated fuel economy target. A multinomial logit model is used to compute surcharges and rebates that leave consumer satisfaction unchanged yet increase the sales-weighted average fuel economy. The results suggest pricing strategies are efficient for small improvements in fuel economy, but are expensive for large improvements. Copyright 1991 by Oxford University Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Greene, David L, 1991. "Short-run Pricing Strategies to Increase Corporate Average Fuel Economy," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 29(1), pages 101-114, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:ecinqu:v:29:y:1991:i:1:p:101-14

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. William D. Nordhaus, 1980. "Policy Responses to the Productivity Slowdown," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 555, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    2. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Productivity Growth and R&D at the Business Level: Results from the PIMS Data Base," NBER Chapters,in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 134-156 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    4. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Issues in Assessing the Contribution of Research and Development to Productivity Growth," NBER Chapters,in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 17-45 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Link, Albert N, 1981. "Basic Research and Productivity Increase in Manufacturing: Additional Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(5), pages 1111-1112, December.
    6. Wesley M. Cohen & Richard C. Levin & David C. Mowery, 1987. "Firm Size and R&D Intensity: A Re-Examination," NBER Working Papers 2205, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Stern, Robert M & Baum, Christopher F & Greene, Mark N, 1979. "Evidence on Structural Change in the Demand for Aggregate U.S. Imports and Exports," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(1), pages 179-192, February.
    8. Mansfield, Edwin, 1980. "Basic Research and Productivity Increase in Manufacturing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 863-873, December.
    9. Cohen, Wesley M & Levin, Richard C & Mowery, David C, 1987. "Firm Size and R&D Intensity: A Re-examination," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 543-565, June.
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    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Parry, Ian & Portney, Paul & Harrington, Winston & Gruenspecht, Howard, 2003. "The Economics of Fuel Economy Standards," Discussion Papers dp-03-44, Resources For the Future.
    2. Klier, Thomas & Linn, Joshua, 2013. "Technological Change, Vehicle Characteristics, and the Opportunity Costs of Fuel Economy Standards," Discussion Papers dp-13-40, Resources For the Future.
    3. Changzheng Liu and David L. Greene, 2014. "Vehicle Manufacturer Technology Adoption and Pricing Strategies under Fuel Economy/Emissions Standards and Feebates," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).
    4. Parry, Ian & Fischer, Carolyn & Harrington, Winston, 2004. "Should Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards Be Tightened?," Discussion Papers dp-04-53, Resources For the Future.
    5. Fischer, Carolyn, 2008. "Comparing flexibility mechanisms for fuel economy standards," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 3106-3114, August.
    6. Kenneth Gillingham & Karen Palmer, 2014. "Bridging the Energy Efficiency Gap: Policy Insights from Economic Theory and Empirical Evidence," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 8(1), pages 18-38, January.
    7. Plourde, Charles & Bardis, Vassilios, 1999. "Fuel economy standards in a model of automobile quality," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 309-319, August.
    8. Greene, David L. & Patterson, Philip D. & Singh, Margaret & Li, Jia, 2005. "Feebates, rebates and gas-guzzler taxes: a study of incentives for increased fuel economy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 757-775, April.
    9. Greene, David L, 1998. "Why CAFE worked," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(8), pages 595-613, July.
    10. Klier, Thomas & Linn, Joshua, 2016. "The effect of vehicle fuel economy standards on technology adoption," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 133(C), pages 41-63.
    11. Timilsina, Govinda R. & Dulal, Hari B., 2009. "A review of regulatory instruments to control environmental externalities from the transport sector," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4867, The World Bank.
    12. Simmons, Richard A. & Shaver, Gregory M. & Tyner, Wallace E. & Garimella, Suresh V., 2015. "A benefit-cost assessment of new vehicle technologies and fuel economy in the U.S. market," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 940-952.
    13. Rasha Ahmed & Kathleen Segerson, 2007. "Emissions Control and the Regulation of Product Markets: The Case of Automobiles," Working papers 2007-40, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    14. Steven Tenn & John M. Yun, 2005. "When adding a fuel efficient car increases an automaker's CAFE penalty," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(1), pages 51-54.
    15. Hongmin Li & Woonghee Tim Huh, 2011. "Pricing Multiple Products with the Multinomial Logit and Nested Logit Models: Concavity and Implications," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 13(4), pages 549-563, October.
    16. Tomohara, Akinori & Xue, Jian, 2009. "Motorcycles retirement program: Choosing the appropriate regulatory framework," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 126-129.
    17. Rubin, Jonathan & Leiby, Paul N. & Greene, David L., 2009. "Tradable fuel economy credits: Competition and oligopoly," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 315-328, November.
    18. Ran Wang & Weiwei Yang, 2016. "How Cafe Influences Auto Firms And Consumers? -Using Evidence From U.S. Market," Eurasian Journal of Economics and Finance, Eurasian Publications, vol. 4(3), pages 85-99.

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