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A review of regulatory instruments to control environmental externalities from the transport sector

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  • Timilsina, Govinda R.
  • Dulal, Hari B.

Abstract

This study reviews regulatory instruments designed to reduce environmental externalities from the transport sector. The study finds that the main regulatory instruments used in practice are fuel economy standards, vehicle emission standards, and fuel quality standards. Although industrialized countries have introduced all three standards with strong enforcement mechanisms, most developing countries have yet to introduce fuel economy standards. The emission standards introduced by many developing countries to control local air pollutants follow either the European Union or United States standards. Fuel quality standards, particularly for gasoline and diesel, have been introduced in many countries mandating 2 to 10 percent blending of biofuels, 10 to 50 times reduction of sulfur from 1996 levels, and banning lead contents. Although inspection and maintenance programs are in place in both industrialized and developing countries to enforce regulatory standards, these programs have faced several challenges in developing countries due to a lack of resources. The study also highlights several factors affecting the selection of regulatory instruments, such as countries'environmental priorities and institutional capacities.

Suggested Citation

  • Timilsina, Govinda R. & Dulal, Hari B., 2009. "A review of regulatory instruments to control environmental externalities from the transport sector," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4867, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4867
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    Cited by:

    1. Blackman, Allen & Osakwe, Rebecca & Alpizar, Francisco, 2010. "Fuel tax incidence in developing countries: The case of Costa Rica," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 2208-2215, May.
    2. Perkins, Richard & Neumayer, Eric, 2012. "Does the ‘California effect’ operate across borders? trading- and investing-up in automobile emission standards," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 42097, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    3. Silitonga, A.S. & Atabani, A.E. & Mahlia, T.M.I., 2012. "Review on fuel economy standard and label for vehicle in selected ASEAN countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 1683-1695.
    4. Barbieri, Nicolò, 2015. "Investigating the impacts of technological position and European environmental regulation on green automotive patent activity," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 140-152.
    5. David Anthoff & Robert Hahn, 2010. "Government failure and market failure: on the inefficiency of environmental and energy policy," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 26(2), pages 197-224, Summer.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Transport Economics Policy&Planning; Transport and Environment; Energy Production and Transportation; Environmental Economics&Policies; Environment and Energy Efficiency;

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