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Mnożnik fiskalny: reaktywacja

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  • Marek Lubiński
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    Celem artykułu jest przedyskutowanie istniejących między ekonomistami kontrowersji wokół mnożnika fiskalnego. W tym celu dokonano obszernego przeglądu najnowszej literatury teoretycznej i empirycznej. Globalny kryzys finansowy doprowadził do ponownego zainteresowania dyskrecjonalnymi bodźcami fiskalnymi. Potrzeba ekspansji fiskalnej była szczególnie silna ze względu na spadek do zera krótkookresowych wolnych od ryzyka stóp procentowych. Zwolennicy dyskrecjonalnej interwencji fiskalnej podkreślali, że wydatki państwa mogą pobudzać, poprzez mnożnikowe efekty keynesowskie, dodatkowe wydatki prywatne. Dlatego znaczna część dyskursu ekonomicznego na temat pakietów fiskalnych skoncentrowała się wokół wielkości mnożników wydatków rządowych. Mnożniki wydatków rządowych w modelach nowej ekonomii keynesowskiej są niższe aniżeli w modelach tradycyjnych. Z literatury empirycznej wynika, że wprawdzie mnożniki fiskalne w większości przypadków są dodatnie, to jednak na ogół przybierają stosunkowo niskie wartości. Istnieją również dowody na występowanie ujemnych mnożników fiskalnych. Wpływ szoków fiskalnych na gospodarkę zależy od wielu czynników, takich jak stopień wykorzystania czynników produkcji, reżim kursowy, stopień otwarcia gospodarki, zadłużenie państwa, zachowania gospodarstw domowych oraz skala wypierania. Ponadto efekty polityki fiskalnej są nieliniowe. Dlatego mnożnik fiskalny jest niepewną przesłanką dla polityki stabilizacyjnej.

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    Article provided by Warsaw School of Economics in its journal Gospodarka Narodowa.

    Volume (Year): (2015)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 5-26

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    Handle: RePEc:sgh:gosnar:y:2015:i:1:p:5-26
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