IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

The effect of working time preferences and fair wage perceptions on entrepreneurial intentions among employees

Listed author(s):
  • Arndt Werner

    ()

  • Johanna Gast

    ()

  • Sascha Kraus

    ()

Registered author(s):

    To date, little is known about how working time preferences and fair wage perceptions affect employees’ entrepreneurial intentions. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, we provide first evidence that the difference between the actual and desired amount of working hours in paid employment is positively related to the propensity to switch to self-employment. Furthermore, our analysis supports the hypothesis that employees who perceive their current wage level as very unfair are more likely to have higher entrepreneurial intentions. However, the closer actual wages get to the wage levels perceived as fair, the more employees are likely to remain in their current employment situation. We also tested the interaction effect of working time preferences and fair wage perceptions. In line with our theoretical considerations, we find that employees who perceive their wages as unfair and, simultaneously, prefer different work hours have the strongest entrepreneurial intentions. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11187-013-9528-2
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Springer in its journal Small Business Economics.

    Volume (Year): 43 (2014)
    Issue (Month): 1 (June)
    Pages: 137-160

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:43:y:2014:i:1:p:137-160
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-013-9528-2
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.springer.com

    Order Information: Web: http://www.springer.com/new+%26+forthcoming+titles+%28default%29/journal/11187/PS2

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as
    in new window

    1. Parker, Simon C. & van Praag, C. Mirjam, 2006. "Schooling, Capital Constraints, and Entrepreneurial Performance: The Endogenous Triangle," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 24, pages 416-431, October.
    2. Uschi Backes-Gellner & Arndt Werner, 2007. "Entrepreneurial Signaling via Education: A Success Factor in Innovative Start-Ups," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 173-190, June.
    3. Merz, Joachim, 2002. "Time and Economic Well-Being--A Panel Analysis of Desired versus Actual Working Hours," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(3), pages 317-346, September.
    4. Robert W. Fairlie & Harry A. Krashinsky, 2012. "Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, and Entrepreneurship Revisited," CESifo Working Paper Series 3784, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Isabel Grilo & Roy Thurik, 2005. "Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-29, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    6. Douglas, Evan J. & Shepherd, Dean A., 2000. "Entrepreneurship as a utility maximizing response," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 231-251, May.
    7. Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew & Stutzer, Alois, 2001. "Latent entrepreneurship across nations," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 680-691, May.
    8. Böheim, René & Taylor, Mark P., 2001. "Actual and preferred working hours," ISER Working Paper Series 2001-06, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    9. Colin Camerer & Linda Babcock & George Loewenstein & Richard Thaler, 1997. "Labor Supply of New York City Cabdrivers: One Day at a Time," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(2), pages 407-441.
    10. Andersson, Pernilla, 2008. "Happiness and health: Well-being among the self-employed," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 213-236, February.
    11. Parker,Simon C., 2006. "The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521030632, December.
    12. De Wit, G. & Winden, F., 1989. "An Empirical Analysis Of Self-Employment In The Netherlands," Papers 89.02, NEUHUYS - RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM.
    13. Johannes Abeler & Armin Falk & Lorenz Goette & David Huffman, 2011. "Reference Points and Effort Provision," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(2), pages 470-492, April.
    14. Guy Mayraz & Jürgen Schupp & Gert G. Wagner, 2009. "Life Satisfaction and Relative Income: Perceptions and Evidence," CEP Discussion Papers dp0938, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    15. Daiji Kawaguchi, 2002. "Compensating Wage Differentials among Self-Employed Workers:Evidence from Job Satisfaction Scores," ISER Discussion Paper 0568, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
    16. Christian Pfeifer & Stefan Schneck, 2010. "Relative Wage Positions and Quit Behavior: New Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data," Working Paper Series in Economics 163, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
    17. Frederic Delmar & Per Davidsson, 2000. "Where do they come from? Prevalence and characteristics of nascent entrepreneurs," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(1), pages 1-23, January.
    18. AndrewE. Clark & Claudia Senik, 2010. "Who Compares to Whom? The Anatomy of Income Comparisons in Europe," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 120(544), pages 573-594, 05.
    19. Gerardo Jacobs, 2008. "An Occupational Choice Model For Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 33(2), pages 125-153, December.
    20. Taylor, Mark P, 1996. "Earnings, Independence or Unemployment: Why Become Self-Employed?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(2), pages 253-266, May.
    21. P. Mueller, 2006. "Entrepreneurship in the Region: Breeding Ground for Nascent Entrepreneurs?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 41-58, August.
    22. Townsend, David M. & Busenitz, Lowell W. & Arthurs, Jonathan D., 2010. "To start or not to start: Outcome and ability expectations in the decision to start a new venture," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 192-202, March.
    23. Blanchflower, David G., 2000. "Self-employment in OECD countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 471-505, September.
    24. Parker, Simon C, 2009. "Why do small firms produce the entrepreneurs?," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 484-494, June.
    25. Dawson, Christopher & Henley, Andrew & Latreille, Paul L., 2009. "Why Do Individuals Choose Self-Employment?," IZA Discussion Papers 3974, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    26. Thomas Hellmann, 2007. "When Do Employees Become Entrepreneurs?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 53(6), pages 919-933, June.
    27. Paul Sullivan, 2009. "Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations are Misclassified," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(2).
    28. Simon Parker, 2007. "Which firms do the entrepreneurs come from?," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 10(10), pages 1-9.
    29. Canice Prendergast, 1999. "The Provision of Incentives in Firms," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 7-63, March.
    30. Fairlie, Robert W. & Robb, Alicia, 2004. "Families, Human Capital, and Small Business: Evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 1296, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    31. Axel Ockenfels & Gary E. Bolton, 2000. "ERC: A Theory of Equity, Reciprocity, and Competition," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(1), pages 166-193, March.
    32. Per Davidsson & Scott Gordon, 2012. "Panel studies of new venture creation: a methods-focused review and suggestions for future research," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 853-876, November.
    33. Helen Tam, 2010. "Characteristics of the underemployed and the overemployed in the UK," Economic & Labour Market Review, Palgrave Macmillan;Office for National Statistics, vol. 4(7), pages 8-20, July.
    34. Barton H. Hamilton, 2000. "Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 604-631, June.
    35. Kahneman, Daniel & Tversky, Amos, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 263-291, March.
    36. Christian Pfeifer & Stefan Schneck, 2012. "Relative Wage Positions and Quit Behavior: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 65(1), pages 126-147, January.
    37. Ernst Fehr & Lorenz Goette, 2007. "Do workers work more if wages are high? Evidence from a randomized field experiment," Natural Field Experiments 00240, The Field Experiments Website.
    38. Mark Wooden & Diana Warren & Robert Drago, 2007. "Working Time Mismatch and Subjective Well-Being," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2007n29, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    39. Axel Ockenfels & Dirk Sliwka & Peter Werner, 2015. "Bonus Payments and Reference Point Violations," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 61(7), pages 1496-1513, July.
    40. Pia Arenius & Maria Minniti, 2005. "Perceptual Variables and Nascent Entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 233-247, 02.
    41. Edvard Johansson, 2000. "Self-employment and the predicted earnings differential - evidence from Finland," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 45-55, Spring.
    42. Wagner, Joachim, 2004. "Are Young and Small Firms Hothouses for Nascent Entrepreneurs? Evidence from German Micro Data," IZA Discussion Papers 989, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    43. Michael Waldman, 1984. "Job Assignments, Signalling, and Efficiency," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(2), pages 255-267, Summer.
    44. Isabel Grilo & Jesus-Maria Irigoyen, 2006. "Entrepreneurship in the EU: To Wish and not to be," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(4), pages 305-318, 05.
    45. Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2005. "Determinants of entrepreneurial engagement levels in Europe and the US," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-25, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
    46. Schneck, Stefan, 2011. "The Effect of Relative Standing on Considerations About Self-Employment," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-486, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
    47. Jaeger, David A & Page, Marianne E, 1996. "Degrees Matter: New Evidence on Sheepskin Effects in the Returns to Education," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(4), pages 733-740, November.
    48. S. M. Kanbur, 1979. "Impatience, Information and Risk Taking in a General Equilibrium Model of Occupational Choice," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(4), pages 707-718.
    49. Roope Uusitalo, 1999. "Homo Entreprenaurus?," Discussion Papers 205, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).
    50. Dunn, Thomas & Holtz-Eakin, Douglas, 2000. "Financial Capital, Human Capital, and the Transition to Self-Employment: Evidence from Intergenerational Links," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(2), pages 282-305, April.
    51. Heiko Bergmann & Rolf Sternberg, 2007. "The Changing Face of Entrepreneurship in Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 205-221, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:43:y:2014:i:1:p:137-160. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)

    or (Rebekah McClure)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.