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Gender gap in latent and nascent entrepreneurship: driven by competitiveness

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  • Werner Bönte

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  • Monika Piegeler

Abstract

This study highlights the relevance of gender differences in competitiveness for the gender gap in latent and nascent entrepreneurship. Using data obtained from a recent large-scale survey conducted in 36 countries, we find that individuals who like situations in which they compete with others are more likely to have a preference for being self-employed (latent entrepreneurs) and are also more likely to take steps to start new businesses (nascent entrepreneurs). Moreover, our results suggest that women are less competitively inclined than men in almost all countries in our sample and are also less willing to take risks. The results of a decomposition analysis suggest that gender differences in competitiveness and risk taking contribute significantly to the gender gap in latent and nascent entrepreneurship. Gender differences in competitiveness seem to be relevant, especially for the gender gap in nascent entrepreneurship. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Werner Bönte & Monika Piegeler, 2013. "Gender gap in latent and nascent entrepreneurship: driven by competitiveness," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 961-987, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:41:y:2013:i:4:p:961-987
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-012-9459-3
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Elvin Afandi & Majid Kermani, 2014. "Bridging the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Europe," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp1074, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    2. Marco Caliendo & Frank M. Fossen & Alexander Kritikos & Miriam Wetter, 2015. "The Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Not just a Matter of Personality," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 61(1), pages 202-238.
    3. Werner Bönte & Sandro Lombardo & Diemo Urbig, 2016. "Economics meets Psychology:Experimental and self-reported Measures of Individual Competitiveness," Schumpeter Discussion Papers SDP16006, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
    4. Peter Zwan & Roy Thurik & Ingrid Verheul & Jolanda Hessels, 2016. "Factors influencing the entrepreneurial engagement of opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs," Eurasian Business Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 6(3), pages 273-295, December.
    5. repec:wsi:jdexxx:v:22:y:2017:i:03:n:s1084946717500194 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:spr:intemj:v:13:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11365-016-0421-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Albort-Morant, Gema & Oghazi, Pejvak, 2016. "How useful are incubators for new entrepreneurs?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(6), pages 2125-2129.
    8. repec:kap:sbusec:v:48:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11187-016-9793-y is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Andrea Rey-Martí & Domingo Ribeiro-Soriano & Daniel Palacios-Marqués, 2016. "Entrepreneurial attributes of human capital and contingency factors in the culinary tourism," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 67-85, March.
    10. D. Cagno & A. Galliera & W. Güth & N. Pace & L. Panaccione, 2017. "Experience and gender effects in acquisition experiment with value messages," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 71-97, January.
    11. Elvin Afandi & Majid Kermani & Fuad Mammadov, 2017. "Social capital and entrepreneurial process," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 685-716, September.
    12. Christian Hundt & Rolf Sternberg, 2016. "Explaining new firm creation in Europe from a spatial and time perspective: A multilevel analysis based upon data of individuals, regions and countries," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(2), pages 223-257, June.
    13. Markussen, Simen & Røed, Knut, 2017. "The gender gap in entrepreneurship – The role of peer effects," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 134(C), pages 356-373.
    14. Markussen, Simen & Røed, Knut, 2016. "Gendered Entrepreneurship Networks," IZA Discussion Papers 9984, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    15. repec:kap:sbusec:v:48:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11187-016-9789-7 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; Gender gap; Competitiveness; Risk preference; J16; L26; D03;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • D03 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles

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