What drives women out of entrepreneurship? The joint role of testosterone and culture
The ratio of second to fourth digit (2D4D) has been shown to correlate negatively with entrepreneurial skills and financial success. We document that in a sample of entrepreneurs women have a lower 2D4D ratio than men, in sharp contrast with the features of the distribution in random samples. Exploiting variation across communities in indices correlated with women emancipation, we show that in regions where women are less emancipated their average DR is lower than that of men compared to regions with higher indices. This finding is consistent with the existence of gender related obstacles into entrepreneurship so that only women with well above average entrepreneurial skills find it attractive to self-select into entrepreneurship. This finding can rationalize three facts: a) fewer women than men are entrepreneurs; b) the proportion of women among entrepreneurs tends to be higher in countries with higher women emancipation; c) women who break the barrier into entrepreneurship seem to show more masculine traits. We also find that once women enter entrepreneurship, they are equally able than man to translate their ability into outcomes for the firm.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 77 Bastwick Street, London EC1V 3PZ.|
Phone: 44 - 20 - 7183 8801
Fax: 44 - 20 - 7183 8820
|Order Information:|| Email: |
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Luigi Guiso & Fabiano Schivardi, 2008.
"What determines entrepreneurial clusters?,"
EIEF Working Papers Series
0806, Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF), revised May 2008.
- L. Guiso & F. Schivardi, 2006. "What determines entrepreneurial clusters?," Working Paper CRENoS 200616, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
- Luigi Guiso & Fabiano Schivardi, 2007. "What determines entrepreneurial clusters?," Economics Working Papers ECO2007/48, European University Institute.
- Dreber, Anna & von Essen, Emma & Ranehill, Eva, 2009.
"Outrunning the Gender Gap – Boys and Girls Compete Equally,"
SIFR Research Report Series
69, Institute for Financial Research.
- Anna Dreber & Emma Essen & Eva Ranehill, 2011. "Outrunning the gender gap—boys and girls compete equally," Experimental Economics, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 567-582, November.
- Dreber, Anna & von Essen, Emma & Ranehill, Eva, 2009. "Outrunning the Gender Gap – Boys and Girls Compete Equally," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 709, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 16 Oct 2009.
- Dreber, Anna & Emma, von Essen & Ranehill, Eva, 2009. "Outrunning the Gender Gap – Boys and Girls Compete Equally," Research Papers in Economics 2009:17, Stockholm University, Department of Economics, revised 01 Mar 2010.
- Aldo Rustichini & Uri Gneezy, 2004.
"Gender and competition at a young age,"
Framed Field Experiments
00151, The Field Experiments Website.
- Monica Paiella & Luigi Guiso, 2004.
"Risk Aversion, Wealth and Background Risk,"
2004 Meeting Papers
525, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Guiso, Luigi & Paiella, Monica, 2001. "Risk Aversion, Wealth and Background Risk," CEPR Discussion Papers 2728, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Luigi Guiso & Monica Paiella, 2007. "Risk Aversion, Wealth, and Background Risk," Economics Working Papers ECO2007/47, European University Institute.
- Luigi Guiso & Monica Paiella, 2003. "Risk Aversion, Wealth and Background Risk," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 483, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Kimball, Miles S & Sahm, Claudia R & Shapiro, Matthew D, 2008.
"Imputing Risk Tolerance From Survey Responses,"
Journal of the American Statistical Association,
American Statistical Association, vol. 103(483), pages 1028-1038.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:8204. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.