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Do Institutions Have a Greater Effect on Female Entrepreneurs?

  • Estrin, Saul

    ()

    (London School of Economics)

  • Mickiewicz, Tomasz

    ()

    (Aston University)

This paper compares the impact of institutions on individual decisions to become entrepreneurs in the form of new business start ups by males and females across 44 developed and developing economies between 1998 and 2004. We test four hypotheses; that women are less likely to undertake entrepreneurial activity in countries where the rule of law is weaker; where the state sector is larger; where the informal financial sector is weaker and where the formal financial sector is weaker. We use data from the Global Enterprise Monitor survey (GEM) which covers at least 2,000 individuals annually in each of up to 44 countries, merged with country-level data, from the WB WDI and Heritage Foundation. We start with a spectrum of institutional variables and by utilizing factor analysis prior to regression estimation models, we are able to obtain results that are more robust and address multicollinearity between the institutional measures. We find that women are less likely to undertake entrepreneurial activity in countries where the state sector is larger, and demonstrate that this result applies to both high aspiration and low aspiration entrepreneurship. We also find that women benefit more from the larger informal financial sector.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 4577.

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Length: 50 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2009
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as 'Institutions and female entrepreneurship' in: Small Business Economics, 2011, 37 (4), 397-415
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4577
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  1. Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson, 2005. "Unbundling Institutions," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(5), pages 949-995, October.
  2. Andrei Shleifer & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Rafael La Porta, 2008. "The Economic Consequences of Legal Origins," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 46(2), pages 285-332, June.
  3. Sonin, Konstantin, 2003. "Why the rich may favor poor protection of property rights," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 715-731, December.
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  6. Ruta Aidis & Saul Estrin & Tomasz Mickiewicz, 2007. "Institutions and Entrepreneurship Development in Russia:A Comparative Perspective," CEDI Discussion Paper Series 07-03, Centre for Economic Development and Institutions(CEDI), Brunel University.
  7. Algan, Yann & Cahuc, Pierre, 2005. "The Roots of Low European Employment : Family Culture ?," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Docweb) 0512, CEPREMAP.
  8. Baumol, William J, 1990. "Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive, and Destructive," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 893-921, October.
  9. Erik Hurst & Annamaria Lusardi, 2004. "Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, and Entrepreneurship," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(2), pages 319-347, April.
  10. Elena Bardasi & Shwetlena Sabarwal & Katherine Terrell, 2011. "How do female entrepreneurs perform? Evidence from three developing regions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 417-441, November.
  11. Harry P Bowen & Dirk De Clercq, 2008. "Institutional context and the allocation of entrepreneurial effort," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(4), pages 768-768, June.
  12. van Stel, A.J. & Storey, D. & Thurik, A.R., 2006. "The Effect of Business Regulations on Nascent and Young Business Entrepreneurship," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2006-052-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  13. Sander Wennekers & André van Stel & Roy Thurik & Paul Reynolds, 2005. "Nascent entrepreneurship and the level of economic development," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-14, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  14. Hellman, Joel S. & Jones, Geraint & Kaufmann, Daniel, 2003. "Seize the state, seize the day: state capture and influence in transition economies," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 751-773, December.
  15. Simon Johnson & John McMillan & Christopher Woodruff, 2002. "Property Rights and Finance," NBER Working Papers 8852, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Davidsson, Per & Honig, Benson, 2003. "The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 301-331, May.
  17. Juan Botero & Simeon Djankov & Rafael Porta & Florencio C. Lopez-De-Silanes, 2004. "The Regulation of Labor," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 119(4), pages 1339-1382, November.
  18. Tomasz Mickiewicz, 2009. "Hierarchy of governance institutions and the pecking order of privatisation: Central-Eastern Europe and Central Asia reconsidered," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(4), pages 399-423.
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  24. Rebecca Vonderlack & Mark Schreiner, 2001. "Women, Microfinance, and Savings: Lessons and Proposals," Development and Comp Systems 0108004, EconWPA, revised 27 Dec 2001.
  25. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521828130 is not listed on IDEAS
  26. Oliver E. Williamson, 2000. "The New Institutional Economics: Taking Stock, Looking Ahead," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(3), pages 595-613, September.
  27. Dani Rodrik, 2000. "Institutions for High-Quality Growth: What They are and How to Acquire Them," NBER Working Papers 7540, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  28. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-35, June.
  29. Francesco Giavazzi & Fabio Schiantarelli & Michel Serafinelli, 2009. "Attitudes, Policies and Work," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 714, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 13 Feb 2012.
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