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The Changing Face of Entrepreneurship in Germany

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  • Heiko Bergmann

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  • Rolf Sternberg

    ()

Abstract

This paper explains individual start-up activities on the basis of both person-related characteristics and the regional context. The analysis is based upon micro data from the GEM adult population survey. Both individual and regional variables have an influence on the decision to become self-employed. There are considerable differences between nascent opportunity entrepreneurship and nascent necessity entrepreneurship. Whereas the results for opportunity entrepreneurship are in line with theoretical predictions the factors influencing necessity entrepreneurship are far more difficult to determine. The most significant change between 2001 and 2003/2004 is the reversal of the influence of a change in the regional rate of unemployment on nascent entrepreneurship activities. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Suggested Citation

  • Heiko Bergmann & Rolf Sternberg, 2007. "The Changing Face of Entrepreneurship in Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 205-221, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:28:y:2007:i:2:p:205-221
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-006-9016-z
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Timothy J. Bartik, 2010. "Small Business Start-Ups in the United States: Estimates of the Effects of Characteristics of States," Book chapters authored by Upjohn Institute researchers,in: Zolton Acs (ed.), Entrepreneurship and regional Development, pages 155-169 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
    2. Ingrid Verheul & Sander Wennekers & David Audretsch & Roy Thurik, 2001. "An Eclectic Theory of Entrepreneurship: Policies, Institutions and Culture," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-030/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    3. Davidsson, Per & Honig, Benson, 2003. "The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 301-331, May.
    4. Robinson, Peter B. & Sexton, Edwin A., 1994. "The effect of education and experience on self-employment success," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 141-156, March.
    5. Michael Fritsch & Oliver Falck, 2003. "New Firm Formation by Industry over Space and Time: A Multi-Level Analysis," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 322, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    6. Bates, Timothy, 1995. "Self-employment entry across industry groups," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 143-156, March.
    7. Paul Reynolds, 2005. "Understanding Business Creation: Serendipity and Scope in Two Decades of Business Creation Studies," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 359-364, May.
    8. Hector Rocha & Rolf Sternberg, 2005. "Entrepreneurship: The Role of Clusters Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence from Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 267-292, February.
    9. Catherine Armington & Zoltan Acs, 2002. "The Determinants of Regional Variation in New Firm Formation," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 33-45.
    10. Feldman, Maryann P, 2001. "The Entrepreneurial Event Revisited: Firm Formation in a Regional Context," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 861-891, December.
    11. Moulton, Brent R, 1990. "An Illustration of a Pitfall in Estimating the Effects of Aggregate Variables on Micro Unit," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 334-338, May.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; regions; Germany; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; R12; L26; J23;

    JEL classification:

    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand

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