New firm formation by industry over space and time: a multi-level analysis for Germany
We apply a multi-level approach to analyze the effect of three groups of determinants on new firm formation simultaneously: industry, location and changes over time. The data are for West Germany and cover the 1983-97 period. Our analysis indicates, that innovation activities and the technological regime play a significant role for new firm formation processes. There are also considerable differences with regard to the impact of a number of variables on startups between manufacturing and the service sector. Changes in demand are conducive for new firm formation while a high level of unemployment in a region obviously makes a relatively uncomfortable environment for start-ups. JEL classification: D21, L10, R10 Keywords: New firm formation, industrial economics, regional economics, entrepreneurship.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Beesley, M E & Hamilton, R T, 1984. "Small Firms' Seedbed Role and the Concept of Turbulence," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(2), pages 217-231, December.
- David Audretsch & Michael Fritsch, 1999. "The Industry Component of Regional New Firm Formation Processes," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 15(3), pages 239-252, November.
- Geroski, P. A., 1995. "What do we know about entry?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 421-440, December.
- Bates, Timothy, 1990. "Entrepreneur Human Capital Inputs and Small Business Longevity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(4), pages 551-559, November.
- Birley, Sue, 1985. "The role of networks in the entrepreneurial process," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 107-117.