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Child Labor and Schooling in Bolivia: Who's Falling Behind? The Roles of Domestic Work, Gender, and Ethnicity

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  • Zapata, Daniela
  • Contreras, Dante
  • Kruger, Diana

Abstract

Summary We analyze the role of gender and ethnicity in the work-school tradeoff among school-aged children. We observe domestic chores in Bolivian data and consider them work, finding that girls are 51% more likely than boys to be out of school and working, mostly in domestic activities. For indigenous children the probability is 60% higher than non-indigenous, and indigenous girls are 23% more likely than boys to be out of school and working. A more comprehensive measure of child labor reveals that in countries with large indigenous populations, indigenous girls are most vulnerable to future poverty and exclusion due to low education.

Suggested Citation

  • Zapata, Daniela & Contreras, Dante & Kruger, Diana, 2011. "Child Labor and Schooling in Bolivia: Who's Falling Behind? The Roles of Domestic Work, Gender, and Ethnicity," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 588-599, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:39:y:2011:i:4:p:588-599
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:injoed:v:56:y:2017:i:c:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Semih Tumen, 2015. "Skill Acquisition in the Informal Economy and Schooling Decisions: Evidence from Emerging Economies," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 29(3), pages 270-290, September.
    3. Reimao,Maira Emy Nakayama & Tas,Emcet Oktay, 2015. "Gender education gaps among indigenous and nonindigenous groups in Bolivia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7387, The World Bank.
    4. Diego A. Vera Cossio, 2011. "Enrollment and child labor in Bolivia," Development Research Working Paper Series 11/2011, Institute for Advanced Development Studies.
    5. Rama Lionel Ngenzebuke, 2016. "Female say on income and child outcomes Evidence from Nigeria," WIDER Working Paper Series 134, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. Abou, Pokou Edouard, 2015. "Incidence du travail domestique, des caractéristiques de l’école et du ménage sur les résultats scolaires des filles en Côte d’Ivoire
      [Incidence of domestic work, school and household characteristi
      ," MPRA Paper 43976, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Bredl, Sebastian, 2012. "Child Quality and Child Quantity: Evidence from Bolivian Household Surveys," Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 62065, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    8. Pierre-Richard Agénor & Baris Alpaslan, 2013. "Child Labor, Intra-Household Bargaining and Economic Growth," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 181, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    child labor domestic work schooling gender Latin America Bolivia;

    JEL classification:

    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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