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Child Labor And Schooling In Bolivia: Who’s Falling Behind? The Roles Of Domestic Work, Gender And Ethnicity

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  • Dante Contreras
  • Daniela Kruger
  • Daniela Zapata

Abstract

We analyze the work-school tradeoff among Bolivia’s children. We compare a definition of work that includes only market activities and one that also considers domestic chores. Our empirical specification considers the joint determination of these decisions. We find that a tradeoff exists and that gender and ethnicity matter. Boys are more likely to work if pure market activities are considered; once domestic tasks are included girls are twice as likely to work than boys. The tradeoff between school and work is stronger for indigenous children, and indigenous girls are falling behind other children in terms of their human capital accumulation.

Suggested Citation

  • Dante Contreras & Daniela Kruger & Daniela Zapata, 2007. "Child Labor And Schooling In Bolivia: Who’s Falling Behind? The Roles Of Domestic Work, Gender And Ethnicity," Working Papers wp234, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:udc:wpaper:wp234
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Edmonds, Eric V., 2008. "Child Labor," Handbook of Development Economics, Elsevier.
    2. Moehling, Carolyn M., 2005. ": Youth Employment and Household Decision Making in the Early Twentieth Century," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 65(02), pages 414-438, June.
    3. Jackline Wahba, 2006. "The influence of market wages and parental history on child labour and schooling in Egypt," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 19(4), pages 823-852, October.
    4. Victoria Gunnarsson & Peter F. Orazem & Mario A. Sánchez, 2006. "Child Labor and School Achievement in Latin America," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 20(1), pages 31-54.
    5. Wahba, J., 2006. "The influence of market wages and parental history on child labour and schooling in Egypt," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 0603, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
    6. Ranjan Ray, 2000. "Analysis of child labour in Peru and Pakistan: A comparative study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(1), pages 3-19.
    7. Eric Edmonds, 2006. "Understanding sibling differences in child labor," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 19(4), pages 795-821, October.
    8. Dante Contreras Guajardo & Diana kruger & Marcelo Ochoa & Daniela Zapata, 2007. "The role of social networks in employment outcomes of Bolivian women," Working Papers wp251, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
    9. Levison, Deborah & Moe, Karine S. & Marie Knaul, Felicia, 2001. "Youth Education and Work in Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 167-188, January.
    10. Wahba, J., 2006. "The influence of market wages and parental history on child labour and schooling in Egypt," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 603, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
    11. Paul Schultz, T., 2004. "School subsidies for the poor: evaluating the Mexican Progresa poverty program," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 199-250, June.
    12. Amin, Shahina & Quayes, Shakil & Rives, Janet M., 2006. "Market work and household work as deterrents to schooling in Bangladesh," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1271-1286, July.
    13. Sonia Bhalotra, and Zafiris Tzannatos, 2003. "Child labor : what have we learnt?," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 27872, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:injoed:v:56:y:2017:i:c:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Semih Tumen, 2015. "Skill Acquisition in the Informal Economy and Schooling Decisions: Evidence from Emerging Economies," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 29(3), pages 270-290, September.
    3. Maira Emy Reimão & Emcet O. Taş, 2017. "Gender Education Gaps among Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Groups in Bolivia," Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies, vol. 48(2), pages 228-262, March.
    4. Diego A. Vera Cossio, 2011. "Enrollment and child labor in Bolivia," Development Research Working Paper Series 11/2011, Institute for Advanced Development Studies.
    5. Rama Lionel Ngenzebuke, 2016. "Female say on income and child outcomes Evidence from Nigeria," WIDER Working Paper Series 134, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. Abou, Pokou Edouard, 2015. "Incidence du travail domestique, des caractéristiques de l’école et du ménage sur les résultats scolaires des filles en Côte d’Ivoire
      [Incidence of domestic work, school and household characteristi
      ," MPRA Paper 43976, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Bredl, Sebastian, 2012. "Child Quality and Child Quantity: Evidence from Bolivian Household Surveys," Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 62065, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    8. repec:zbw:espost:173233 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Pierre-Richard Agénor & Baris Alpaslan, 2013. "Child Labor, Intra-Household Bargaining and Economic Growth," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 181, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bolivia; ethnicity; gender; child labor; domestic work; schooling; Latin America.;

    JEL classification:

    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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