IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/wdevel/v113y2019icp26-43.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Food security in rural sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring the nexus between gender, geography and off-farm employment

Author

Listed:
  • Dzanku, Fred Mawunyo

Abstract

How to eradicate hunger and achieve food security remains a key developmental issue, particular in countries south of the Sahara. Most of the empirical literature focuses on agriculture-based interventions although it is well known that rural households have a gamut of income generating activities that constitute their livelihood. This article uses panel data for six African countries to examine the association between off-farm income and household food security and tests key hypotheses that have not been previously explored. We hypothesize that the association between food security and off-farm income is neither gender-neutral nor the same for households living in low and high agroecological potential areas. Because a nontrivial number of households do not earn off-farm income, we also hypothesize that the food security effect of nonparticipation differs by gender and geography. The results show that although off-farm income has a strong statistically significant association with food security the correlation magnitudes are not as strong. However, off-farm income has a significantly stronger association with food security among female-headed and poor region households than it has among male-headed and rich region households in most countries. The gender-related result supports the notion that households tend to benefit more from women's greater control over resources than when such resources are controlled by men. We also show that nonparticipation in off-farm income is more costly, food security wise, for female-headed households and households who live in low agroecological potential regions than it is for male-headed households and those who live in high potential regions. The rural nonfarm sector in high agroecological potential areas tends to be associated with greater poverty reduction among female-headed households than among male-headed households. From a policy and development practice perspective, the results suggest that focusing rural development policies on factors that raise farm productivity alone (e.g., input subsidies) may not lead to gender-neutral welfare outcomes. This means that interventions such as rural nonfarm microcredit schemes that targets female-headed households or women in general could help achieve gender-equitable poverty reduction, as others have shown.

Suggested Citation

  • Dzanku, Fred Mawunyo, 2019. "Food security in rural sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring the nexus between gender, geography and off-farm employment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 26-43.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:113:y:2019:i:c:p:26-43
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.08.017
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X18303176
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Carolyn Kulb & Monique Hennink & Ndunge Kiiti & Jane Mutinda, 2016. "How Does Microcredit Lead to Empowerment? A Case Study of the Vinya wa Aka Group in Kenya," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(5), pages 715-732, July.
    2. Nidhiya Menon & Yana Rodgers & Alexis R. Kennedy, 2017. "Land Reform and Welfare in Vietnam: Why Gender of the Land‐Rights Holder Matters," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(4), pages 454-472, May.
    3. Sraboni, Esha & Malapit, Hazel J. & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Ahmed, Akhter U., 2014. "Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture: What Role for Food Security in Bangladesh?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 11-52.
    4. Gibson, John & Olivia, Susan, 2010. "The Effect of Infrastructure Access and Quality on Non-Farm Enterprises in Rural Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 717-726, May.
    5. Vella, F. & Verbeek, M., 1993. "Estimating and testing Simultaneous Equation Panel Data Models with Censored Endogenous Variables," Papers 9359, Tilburg - Center for Economic Research.
    6. Ganle, John Kuumuori & Afriyie, Kwadwo & Segbefia, Alexander Yao, 2015. "Microcredit: Empowerment and Disempowerment of Rural Women in Ghana," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 335-345.
    7. Sara Horrell & Pramila Krishnan, 2007. "Poverty and productivity in female-headed households in Zimbabwe," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(8), pages 1351-1380.
    8. Alwang, Jeffrey & Siegel, P. B., 1999. "Labor Shortages on Small Landholdings in Malawi: Implications for Policy Reforms," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1461-1475, August.
    9. Canagarajah, S. & Newman, C. & Bhattamishra, R., 2001. "Non-farm income, gender, and inequality: evidence from rural Ghana and Uganda," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 405-420, August.
    10. Elbers, Chris & Fujii, Tomoki & Lanjouw, Peter & Ozler, Berk & Yin, Wesley, 2007. "Poverty alleviation through geographic targeting: How much does disaggregation help?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 198-213, May.
    11. Zereyesus, Yacob A. & Embaye, Weldensie T. & Tsiboe, Francis & Amanor-Boadu, Vincent, 2017. "Implications of Non-Farm Work to Vulnerability to Food Poverty-Recent Evidence From Northern Ghana," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 113-124.
    12. Babatunde, Raphael O. & Qaim, Matin, 2010. "Impact of off-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 303-311, August.
    13. Farrow, Andrew & Larrea, Carlos & Hyman, Glenn & Lema, German, 2005. "Exploring the spatial variation of food poverty in Ecuador," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(5-6), pages 510-531.
    14. Gladwin, Christina H. & Thomson, Anne M. & Peterson, Jennifer S. & Anderson, Andrea S., 2001. "Addressing food security in Africa via multiple livelihood strategies of women farmers," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 177-207, April.
    15. Burchi, Francesco & De Muro, Pasquale, 2016. "From food availability to nutritional capabilities: Advancing food security analysis," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 10-19.
    16. Ashok K. Mishra & Kh. A. Mottaleb & Samarendu Mohanty, 2015. "Impact of off-farm income on food expenditures in rural Bangladesh: an unconditional quantile regression approach," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 46(2), pages 139-148, March.
    17. Delgado, Christopher L. & Hopkins, Jane & Kelly , Valerie & Hazell, P. B. R. & McKenna, Anna A. & Gruhn, Peter & Hojjati, Behjat & Sil, Jayashree & Courbois, Claude, 1998. "Agricultural growth linkages in Sub-Saharan Africa:," Research reports 107, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    18. Harttgen, Kenneth & Klasen, Stephan & Rischke, Ramona, 2016. "Analyzing nutritional impacts of price and income related shocks in Malawi: Simulating household entitlements to food," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 31-43.
    19. Gitonga, Zachary M. & De Groote, Hugo & Kassie, Menale & Tefera, Tadele, 2013. "Impact of metal silos on households’ maize storage, storage losses and food security: An application of a propensity score matching," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 44-55.
    20. Duncan Thomas, 1990. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
    21. Smith, Lisa C. & El Obeid, Amani E. & Jensen, Helen H., 2000. "The geography and causes of food insecurity in developing countries," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 199-215, March.
    22. Davis, Benjamin & Di Giuseppe, Stefania & Zezza, Alberto, 2017. "Are African households (not) leaving agriculture? Patterns of households’ income sources in rural Sub-Saharan Africa," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 153-174.
    23. Joel Negin & Roseline Remans & Susan Karuti & Jessica Fanzo, 2009. "Integrating a broader notion of food security and gender empowerment into the African Green Revolution," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 1(3), pages 351-360, September.
    24. Per Pinstrup-Andersen, 2009. "Food security: definition and measurement," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 1(1), pages 5-7, February.
    25. Vella, Francis, 1993. "A Simple Estimator for Simultaneous Models with Censored Endogenous Regressors," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 34(2), pages 441-457, May.
    26. Singh, Inderjit & Squire, Lyn & Strauss, John, 1986. "A Survey of Agricultural Household Models: Recent Findings and Policy Implications," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 1(1), pages 149-179, September.
    27. Gary Chamberlain, 1980. "Analysis of Covariance with Qualitative Data," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 225-238.
    28. Ryan Mason & Patrick Ndlovu & John Parkins & Marty Luckert, 2015. "Determinants of food security in Tanzania: gendered dimensions of household headship and control of resources," Agriculture and Human Values, Springer;The Agriculture, Food, & Human Values Society (AFHVS), vol. 32(3), pages 539-549, September.
    29. Owusu, Victor & Abdulai, Awudu & Abdul-Rahman, Seini, 2011. "Non-farm work and food security among farm households in Northern Ghana," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 108-118, April.
    30. Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
    31. Kennedy, Eileen & Peters, Pauline, 1992. "Household food security and child nutrition: the interaction of income and gender of household head," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(8), pages 1077-1085, August.
    32. Kabunga, Nassul S. & Dubois, Thomas & Qaim, Matin, 2014. "Impact of tissue culture banana technology on farm household income and food security in Kenya," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 25-34.
    33. Haggblade, Steven & Hazell, Peter & Brown, James, 1989. "Farm-nonfarm linkages in rural sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 17(8), pages 1173-1201, August.
    34. Barratt, N. & Chitundu, D. & Dover, O. & Elsinga, J. & Eriksson, S. & Guma, L. & Haggblade, M. & Haggblade, Steven & Henn, T.O. & Locke, F.R. & O'Donnell, C. & Smith, C. & Stevens, T., 2006. "Cassava as drought insurance: Food security implications of cassava trials in Central Zambia," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 45(1), pages 1-18, March.
    35. Shiferaw T. Feleke & Richard L. Kilmer & Christina H. Gladwin, 2005. "Determinants of food security in Southern Ethiopia at the household level," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 33(3), pages 351-363, November.
    36. Mary K. Mathenge & Melinda Smale & David Tschirley, 2015. "Off-farm Employment and Input Intensification among Smallholder Maize Farmers in Kenya," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 66(2), pages 519-536, June.
    37. Ersado, Lire, 2006. "Income diversification in Zimbabwe : welfare implications from urban and rural areas," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3964, The World Bank.
    38. Kassie, Menale & Ndiritu, Simon Wagura & Stage, Jesper, 2014. "What Determines Gender Inequality in Household Food Security in Kenya? Application of Exogenous Switching Treatment Regression," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 153-171.
    39. Maxwell, Daniel G., 1996. "Measuring food insecurity: the frequency and severity of "coping strategies"," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 291-303, July.
    40. Lisa Pfeiffer & Alejandro López‐Feldman & J. Edward Taylor, 2009. "Is off‐farm income reforming the farm? Evidence from Mexico," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(2), pages 125-138, March.
    41. Conceição, Pedro & Levine, Sebastian & Lipton, Michael & Warren-Rodríguez, Alex, 2016. "Toward a food secure future: Ensuring food security for sustainable human development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1-9.
    42. Maja Micevska & Dil Bahadur Rahut, 2008. "Rural Nonfarm Employment and Incomes in the Himalayas," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(1), pages 163-193, October.
    43. Rijkers, Bob & Costa, Rita, 2012. "Gender and Rural Non-Farm Entrepreneurship," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(12), pages 2411-2426.
    44. Cornia, Giovanni Andrea & Deotti, Laura & Sassi, Maria, 2016. "Sources of food price volatility and child malnutrition in Niger and Malawi," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 20-30.
    45. Maja Micevska Scharf & Dil Bahadur Rahut, 2014. "Nonfarm Employment and Rural Welfare: Evidence from the Himalayas," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 96(4), pages 1183-1197.
    46. Barrett, C. B. & Reardon, T. & Webb, P., 2001. "Nonfarm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in rural Africa: concepts, dynamics, and policy implications," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 315-331, August.
    47. William Greene, 2004. "The behaviour of the maximum likelihood estimator of limited dependent variable models in the presence of fixed effects," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 7(1), pages 98-119, June.
    48. Haggblade, Steven & Hazell, P. B. R. & Reardon, Thomas, 2002. "Strategies for stimulating poverty-alleviating growth in the rural nonfarm economy in developing countries," EPTD discussion papers 92, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    49. Julius A. Nukpezah & Charles Blankson, 2017. "Microfinance Intervention in Poverty Reduction: A Study of Women Farmer-Entrepreneurs in Rural Ghana," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(4), pages 457-475, October.
    50. Doss, Cheryl R. & Morris, Michael L., 2001. "How does gender affect the adoption of agricultural innovations?: The case of improved maize technology in Ghana," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 25(1), pages 27-39, June.
    51. Prudencio, Y. Coffi & Al-Hassan, Ramatu, 1994. "The food security stabilization roles of cassava in Africa," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 57-64, February.
    52. Maja Micevska & Dil Bahadur Rahut, 2008. "Rural Nonfarm Employment andIncomes in the Himalayas," Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, New Delhi Working Papers 205, Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, New Delhi, India.
    53. Dzanku, Fred M., 2015. "Household-specific food price differentials and high-value crop production in rural Ghana," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 73-82.
    54. Babatunde, Raphael O. & Qaim, Matin, 2010. "Impact of Off-farm Income on Food Security and Nutrition in Nigeria," 2010 AAAE Third Conference/AEASA 48th Conference, September 19-23, 2010, Cape Town, South Africa 97332, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
    55. Wooldridge, Jeffrey M., 2011. "A simple method for estimating unconditional heterogeneity distributions in correlated random effects models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 113(1), pages 12-15, October.
    56. Wuyts, Marc, 2001. "Informal Economy, Wage Goods and Accumulation under Structural Adjustment Theoretical Reflections Based on the Tanzanian Experience," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(3), pages 417-438, May.
    57. Collier, Paul & Dercon, Stefan, 2014. "African Agriculture in 50Years: Smallholders in a Rapidly Changing World?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 92-101.
    58. Jayne, T S, 1994. "Do High Food Marketing Costs Constrain Cash Crop Production? Evidence from Zimbabwe," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 42(2), pages 387-402, January.
    59. Burney, Jennifer A. & Naylor, Rosamond L., 2012. "Smallholder Irrigation as a Poverty Alleviation Tool in Sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 110-123.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Hayford Mensah Ayerakwa & Fred Mawunyo Dzanku & Daniel Bruce Sarpong, 2020. "The geography of agriculture participation and food security in a small and a medium-sized city in Ghana," Agricultural and Food Economics, Springer;Italian Society of Agricultural Economics (SIDEA), vol. 8(1), pages 1-21, December.
    2. Abebaw, Degnet & Admassie, Assefa & Kassa, Habtemariam & Padoch, Christine, 2020. "Can rural outmigration improve household food security? Empirical evidence from Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 129(C).
    3. Jacob Katuva & Rob Hope & Tim Foster & Johanna Koehler & Patrick Thomson, 2020. "Modelling Welfare Transitions to Prioritise Sustainable Development Interventions in Coastal Kenya," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(17), pages 1-22, August.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:113:y:2019:i:c:p:26-43. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.