Gender and Rural Non-Farm Entrepreneurship
Using matched household-enterprise-community datasets from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka, this paper analyzes gender differences in rural non-farm entrepreneurship. With the exception of Ethiopia, women are less likely to be non-farm entrepreneurs than men are. Women’s non-farm entrepreneurship is neither strongly correlated with household composition nor with educational attainment. Female firms are smaller and less productive in all countries except Indonesia. Differences in output per worker are overwhelmingly accounted for by sorting by sector and size. They are not due to differences in capital intensity, increasing returns to scale, human capital, or local investment climate characteristics.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Derek Headey & Dirk Bezemer & Peter B. Hazell, 2010. "Agricultural Employment Trends in Asia and Africa: Too Fast or Too Slow?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 25(1), pages 57-89, February.
- Stefan Dercon, 2009.
"Rural Poverty: Old Challenges in New Contexts,"
World Bank Research Observer,
World Bank Group, vol. 24(1), pages 1-28, April.
- Parker, Simon C., 2008.
"Entrepreneurship among married couples in the United States: A simultaneous probit approach,"
Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 459-481, June.
- Parker, Simon C., 2005. "Entrepreneurship Among Married Couples in the United States: A Simultaneous Probit Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 1712, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Sabarwal, Shwetlena & Terrell, Katherine, 2008.
"Does Gender Matter for Firm Performance? Evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asia,"
IZA Discussion Papers
3758, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Sabarwal, Shwetlena & Terrell, Katherine, 2008. "Does gender matter for firm performance ? evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4705, The World Bank.
- Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521899604, June.
- Shaohua Chen & Martin Ravallion, 2010. "The Developing World is Poorer than We Thought, But No Less Successful in the Fight Against Poverty," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 125(4), pages 1577-1625.
- D. Storey, 2004. "Racial and Gender Discrimination in the Micro Firms Credit Market?: Evidence from Trinidad and Tobago," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(5), pages 401-422, December.
- Lanjouw, Jean O. & Lanjouw, Peter, 2001.
"The rural non-farm sector: issues and evidence from developing countries,"
Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists,
International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 26(1), October.
- Lanjouw, Jean O. & Lanjouw, Peter, 2001. "The rural non-farm sector: issues and evidence from developing countries," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 26(1), pages 1-23, October.
- Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521728355, June.
- Duncan Thomas, 1990.
"Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
- Thomas, D., 1989. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Papers 586, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 1998.
"Discrimination in the Small Business Credit Market,"
NBER Working Papers
6840, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 930-943, November.
- Buvinic, Mayra & Gupta, Geeta Rao, 1997. "Female-Headed Households and Female-Maintained Families: Are They Worth Targeting to Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(2), pages 259-80, January.
- Joseph G. Altonji & Rebecca M. Blank, .
"Race and Gender in the Labor Market,"
IPR working papers
98-18, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University.
- Esther Duflo, 2003.
"Grandmothers and Granddaughters: Old-Age Pensions and Intrahousehold Allocation in South Africa,"
World Bank Economic Review,
World Bank Group, vol. 17(1), pages 1-25, June.
- Esther Duflo, 2000. "Grandmothers and Granddaughters: Old Age Pension and Intra-household Allocation in South Africa," NBER Working Papers 8061, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jin, Songqing & Deininger, Klaus W. & Sur, Mona, 2005.
"Sri Lanka's Rural Non-farm Economy: Removing Constraints to Pro-poor Growth,"
2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI
19280, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Deininger, Klaus & Jin, Songqing & Sur, Mona, 2007. "Sri Lanka's Rural Non-Farm Economy: Removing Constraints to Pro-Poor Growth," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 2056-2078, December.
- Markus Goldstein & Christopher Udry, 2005.
"The Profits of Power: Land Rights and Agricultural Investment in Ghana,"
929, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Markus Goldstein & Christopher Udry, 2008. "The Profits of Power: Land Rights and Agricultural Investment in Ghana," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 116(6), pages 981-1022, December.
- Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-46, October.
- Haggblade, Steven & Hazell, Peter & Reardon, Thomas, 2010. "The Rural Non-farm Economy: Prospects for Growth and Poverty Reduction," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 1429-1441, October.
- Songqing Jin & Klaus Deininger, 2009. "Key Constraints for Rural Non-Farm Activity in Tanzania: Combining Investment Climate and Household Surveys," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 18(2), pages 319-361, March.
- Orazio Attanasio & ValÃ©rie Lechene, 2002.
"Tests of Income Pooling in Household Decisions,"
Review of Economic Dynamics,
Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 5(4), pages 720-748, October.
- Kristin Mammen & Christina Paxson, 2000. "Women's Work and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 141-164, Fall.
- Janvry, Alain de & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 2001. "Income Strategies Among Rural Households in Mexico: The Role of Off-farm Activities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 467-480, March.
- Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Maluccio, John A., 2000.
"Intrahousehold allocation and gender relations,"
FCND discussion papers
84, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Horrell, S. & Krishnan, P., 2006.
"Poverty and Productivity in Female-Headed Households in Zimbabwe,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
0663, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Sara Horrell & Pramila Krishnan, 2007. "Poverty and productivity in female-headed households in Zimbabwe," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(8), pages 1351-1380.
- Rijkers, Bob & Söderbom, Måns & Loening, Josef L., 2010. "A Rural-Urban Comparison of Manufacturing Enterprise Performance in Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 1278-1296, September.
- Babatunde, Raphael O. & Qaim, Matin, 2010. "Impact of Off-farm Income on Food Security and Nutrition in Nigeria," 2010 AAAE Third Conference/AEASA 48th Conference, September 19-23, 2010, Cape Town, South Africa 97332, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE);Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA).
- Priebe, Jan & Rudolf, Robert & Klasen, Stephan & Weisbrod, Julian, 2009. "Rural Income Dynamics in Post-Crisis Indonesia," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Frankfurt a.M. 2009 29, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
- Babatunde, Raphael O. & Qaim, Matin, 2010. "Impact of off-farm income on food security and nutrition in Nigeria," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 303-311, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:40:y:2012:i:12:p:2411-2426. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.