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Gender and Rural Non-Farm Entrepreneurship

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  • Rijkers, Bob
  • Costa, Rita

Abstract

Using matched household-enterprise-community datasets from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka, this paper analyzes gender differences in rural non-farm entrepreneurship. With the exception of Ethiopia, women are less likely to be non-farm entrepreneurs than men are. Women’s non-farm entrepreneurship is neither strongly correlated with household composition nor with educational attainment. Female firms are smaller and less productive in all countries except Indonesia. Differences in output per worker are overwhelmingly accounted for by sorting by sector and size. They are not due to differences in capital intensity, increasing returns to scale, human capital, or local investment climate characteristics.

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  • Rijkers, Bob & Costa, Rita, 2012. "Gender and Rural Non-Farm Entrepreneurship," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(12), pages 2411-2426.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:40:y:2012:i:12:p:2411-2426 DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.05.017
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    Cited by:

    1. Sibel Cengiz & Afsin Sahin, 2014. "Modelling nonlinear behavior of labor force participation rate by STAR: An application for Turkey," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology (EMATTECH), Kavala, Greece, vol. 7(1), pages 113-127, April.
    2. Campos,Francisco Moraes Leitao & Goldstein,Markus P. & Mcgorman,Laura & Munoz Boudet,Ana Maria & Pimhidzai,Obert, 2015. "Breaking the metal ceiling : female entrepreneurs who succeed in male-dominated sectors," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7503, The World Bank.
    3. Arturo Aguilar & Eliana Carranza & Markus Goldstein & Talip Kilic & Gbemisola Oseni, 2015. "Decomposition of gender differentials in agricultural productivity in Ethiopia," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 46(3), pages 311-334, May.
    4. Nagler, Paula & Naudé, Wim, 2017. "Non-farm entrepreneurship in rural sub-Saharan Africa: New empirical evidence," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 175-191.
    5. Nkechi S. Owoo, 2016. "Determinants of choice of economic sector in the non-farm economy in Ghana," African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(1), pages 31-54.
    6. Hazarika, Bhabesh & Goswami, Kishor, 2014. "Rural Non-Farm Micro-Entrepreneurship or Not: Gender Issue in Decision Making," EconStor Conference Papers 125611, ZBW - German National Library of Economics.
    7. Rijkers, Bob & Söderbom, Måns, 2013. "The Effects of Risk and Shocks on Non-Farm Enterprise Development in Rural Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 119-136.
    8. Clémentine Sadania, 2016. "Working and Women’s Empowerment in the Egyptian Household: The Type of Work and Location Matter," Working Papers halshs-01525220, HAL.
    9. Nagler, Paula & Naudé, Wim, 2014. "Young Entrepreneurs in Rural Africa: Prevalence, Determinants, Productivity," IZA Discussion Papers 8564, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Owoo, Nkechi S. & Naudé, Wim, 2014. "Non-Farm Enterprise Productivity and Spatial Autocorrelation in Rural Africa: Evidence from Ethiopia and Nigeria," IZA Discussion Papers 8295, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Heshmati, Almas & Rashidghalam, Masoomeh, 2016. "Labour Productivity in Kenyan Manufacturing and Service Industries," IZA Discussion Papers 9923, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. Nagler, Paula & Naudé, Wim, 2014. "Labor Productivity in Rural African Enterprises: Empirical Evidence from the LSMS-ISA," IZA Discussion Papers 8524, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Nagler, Paula & Naudé, Wim, 2014. "Non-Farm Entrepreneurship in Rural Africa: Patterns and Determinants," IZA Discussion Papers 8008, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    14. Kolstad, Ivar & Wiig, Arne & Moazzem, Khondaker Golam, 2014. "Returns to education among entrepreneurs in Bangladesh," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 54-65.
    15. Maria Lúcia Pato & Aurora A.C. Teixeira, 2013. "Twenty years of rural entrepreneurship: a bibliometric survey," FEP Working Papers 516, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    16. Nagler, Paula & Naude, Wim, 2014. "Non-farm enterprises in rural Africa : new empirical evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7066, The World Bank.

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