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Rural Income Dynamics in Post-Crisis Indonesia


  • Priebe, Jan
  • Rudolf, Robert
  • Klasen, Stephan
  • Weisbrod, Julian


Indonesia is, what the World Development Report 2008 calls, a transforming country characterized by increasing rural-urban income disparities and high poverty rates. Bearing these facts in mind, it is striking how little is known about causes and mechanism of the underlying determinants of poverty in rural Indonesia. In this study we aim to shed more light on the determinants of rural incomes and poverty in Indonesia. Drawing on a unique and highly detailed rural household panel data set for Central Sulawesi we investigate what are the drivers of rural income growth. Moreover, exploiting the panel structure of our data set we are able to control explicitly for individual- and time-specific effects and for endogeneity issues in our estimations. In addition, in order to identify whether our findings might hold lessons for all of Indonesia, we upscale our analysis to the national level by comparing our results with the national household data survey SUSENAS. Our results indicate that a sharp increase in rural incomes took place in the post-crisis period. Moreover, the ability to alleviate poverty and to enjoy income growth has been strongly associated with a household's ability to diversify into the non-farm sector of the economy, to focus on higher value-added agricultural activities and its ability to invest into new production techniques. These results seem to hold for most of rural Indonesia and are robust to various model specifications.

Suggested Citation

  • Priebe, Jan & Rudolf, Robert & Klasen, Stephan & Weisbrod, Julian, 2009. "Rural Income Dynamics in Post-Crisis Indonesia," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Frankfurt a.M. 2009 29, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:gdec09:29

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Adams, Richard H, Jr, 1995. "Agricultural Income, Cash Crops, and Inequality in Rural Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(3), pages 467-491, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Andy Sumner, 2014. "Who are likely to be the future poor in Indonesia? Evidence on primary school non-completion from six rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey, 1991-2012," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 201406, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised May 2014.
    2. Gibson, John & Olivia, Susan, 2010. "The Effect of Infrastructure Access and Quality on Non-Farm Enterprises in Rural Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 717-726, May.
    3. Rijkers, Bob & Costa, Rita, 2012. "Gender and Rural Non-Farm Entrepreneurship," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(12), pages 2411-2426.
    4. Andy Sumner & Arief Anshory Yusuf & Yangki Imade Suara, 2014. "The Prospects of the Poor: A Set of Poverty Measures Based on the Probability of Remaining Poor (or Not) in Indonesia," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 201410, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised Jul 2014.

    More about this item


    Rural non-farm income; agricultural productivity growth; rural poverty;

    JEL classification:

    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • Q12 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
    • R20 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - General


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