IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jfpoli/v71y2017icp74-85.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Trading off nutrition and education? A panel data analysis of the dissimilar welfare effects of Organic and Fairtrade standards

Author

Listed:
  • Meemken, Eva-Marie
  • Spielman, David J.
  • Qaim, Matin

Abstract

Millions of smallholder farmers in developing countries participate in different types of sustainability standards. A growing body of literature has analyzed the welfare effects, with mixed results. Yet, there are important knowledge gaps. First, most existing studies have looked at the effects of one standard in one country. When comparing between studies it is unclear whether dissimilar outcomes are the result of different standards or different local conditions. Second, most studies have used cross-section data, so that selectivity issues remain a challenge. Third, existing work has primarily analyzed effects in terms of purely economic indicators, such as prices and income, ignoring other dimensions of household welfare. We address these shortcomings using panel data from small-scale coffee producers in Uganda and comparing the effects of two of the most popular sustainability standards, namely Organic and Fairtrade. Welfare effects are analyzed in terms of household expenditures, child education, and nutrition. Results show that Organic and Fairtrade both have positive effects on total consumption expenditures. However, notable differences are observed in terms of the other outcomes. Organic contributes to improved nutrition but has no effect on education. For Fairtrade it is exactly the other way around. We explore the mechanisms behind these differences.

Suggested Citation

  • Meemken, Eva-Marie & Spielman, David J. & Qaim, Matin, 2017. "Trading off nutrition and education? A panel data analysis of the dissimilar welfare effects of Organic and Fairtrade standards," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 74-85.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfpoli:v:71:y:2017:i:c:p:74-85
    DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2017.07.010
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306919217302555
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.foodpol.2017.07.010?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Raluca Dragusanu & Daniele Giovannucci & Nathan Nunn, 2014. "The Economics of Fair Trade," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 28(3), pages 217-236, Summer.
    2. Dragusanu, Raluca & Giovannucci, Daniele & Nunn, Nathan, 2014. "The Economics of Fair Trade," Scholarly Articles 33077828, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    3. Valkila, Joni, 2009. "Fair Trade organic coffee production in Nicaragua -- Sustainable development or a poverty trap?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(12), pages 3018-3025, October.
    4. Seth R. Gitter & Jeremy G. Weber & Bradford L. Barham & Mercedez Callenes & Jessa Lewis Valentine, 2012. "Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Cooperatives, Migration, and Secondary Schooling in Southern Mexico," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(3), pages 445-463, March.
    5. AKOYI, Kevin Teopista & MAERTENS, Miet, 2016. "Private Sustainability Standards in the Ugandan Coffee Sector: Empty Promises or Catalysts for Development?," Working Papers 235004, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
    6. John C. Beghin & Miet Maertens & Johan Swinnen, 2017. "Nontariff Measures and Standards in Trade and Global Value Chains," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: John Christopher Beghin (ed.), Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 2, pages 13-38, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    7. Bravo-Monroy, L. & Potts, S.G. & Tzanopoulos, J., 2016. "Drivers influencing farmer decisions for adopting organic or conventional coffee management practices," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 49-61.
    8. Maertens, Miet & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Trade, Standards, and Poverty: Evidence from Senegal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 161-178, January.
    9. de Haen, Hartwig & Klasen, Stephan & Qaim, Matin, 2011. "What do we really know? Metrics for food insecurity and undernutrition," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 760-769.
    10. Jena, Pradyot Ranjan & Stellmacher, Till & Grote, Ulrike, 2012. "The Impact of Coffee Certification on Small-Scale Producers’ Livelihoods: Evidence from Ethiopia," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126720, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    11. Kleemann, Linda & Abdulai, Awudu & Buss, Mareike, 2014. "Certification and Access to Export Markets: Adoption and Return on Investment of Organic-Certified Pineapple Farming in Ghana," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 79-92.
    12. Leonardo Becchetti & Stefano Castriota & Melania Michetti, 2013. "The effect of fair trade affiliation on child schooling: evidence from a sample of Chilean honey producers," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(25), pages 3552-3563, September.
    13. Stephen Klasen, 2000. "Measuring Poverty And Deprivation In South Africa," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 46(1), pages 33-58, March.
    14. Vellema, W. & Buritica Casanova, A. & Gonzalez, C. & D’Haese, M., 2015. "The effect of specialty coffee certification on household livelihood strategies and specialisation," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 13-25.
    15. Chiputwa, Brian & Spielman, David J. & Qaim, Matin, 2015. "Food Standards, Certification, and Poverty among Coffee Farmers in Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 400-412.
    16. Esther Duflo & Christopher Udry, 2003. "Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Côte D'ivoire: Social Norms, Separate Accounts and Consumption Choices," Working Papers 857, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
    17. Schuster, Monica & Maertens, Miet, 2013. "Do private standards create exclusive supply chains? New evidence from the Peruvian asparagus export sector," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 291-305.
    18. John C. Beghin & Miet Maertens & Johan Swinnen, 2017. "Nontariff Measures and Standards in Trade and Global Value Chains," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 2, pages 13-38 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    19. Sam Jones & Peter Gibbon, 2011. "Developing Agricultural Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa: Organic Cocoa in Rural Uganda," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(10), pages 1595-1618.
    20. Grunert, Klaus G. & Hieke, Sophie & Wills, Josephine, 2014. "Sustainability labels on food products: Consumer motivation, understanding and use," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 177-189.
    21. Keisuke Hirano & Guido W. Imbens & Geert Ridder & Donald B. Rubin, 2001. "Combining Panel Data Sets with Attrition and Refreshment Samples," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1645-1659, November.
    22. Weber, Jeremy G., 2011. "How much more do growers receive for Fair Trade-organic coffee?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 678-685.
    23. Ibanez, Marcela & Blackman, Allen, 2016. "Is Eco-Certification a Win–Win for Developing Country Agriculture? Organic Coffee Certification in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 14-27.
    24. Pradyot Ranjan Jena & Bezawit Beyene Chichaibelu & Till Stellmacher & Ulrike Grote, 2012. "The impact of coffee certification on small-scale producers’ livelihoods: a case study from the Jimma Zone, Ethiopia," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 43(4), pages 429-440, July.
    25. Chege, Christine G.K. & Andersson, Camilla I.M. & Qaim, Matin, 2015. "Impacts of Supermarkets on Farm Household Nutrition in Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 394-407.
    26. Parvathi, Priyanka & Waibel, Hermann, 2016. "Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade: A Happy Marriage? A Case Study of Certified Smallholder Black Pepper Farmers in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 206-220.
    27. Becchetti, Leonardo & Costantino, Marco, 2008. "The Effects of Fair Trade on Affiliated Producers: An Impact Analysis on Kenyan Farmers," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 823-842, May.
    28. Bolwig, Simon & Gibbon, Peter & Jones, Sam, 2009. "The Economics of Smallholder Organic Contract Farming in Tropical Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1094-1104, June.
    29. Meemken, Eva-Marie & Veettil, Prakashan Chellattan & Qaim, Matin, 2017. "Toward Improving the Design of Sustainability Standards—A Gendered Analysis of Farmers’ Preferences," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 285-298.
    30. Brian Chiputwa & Matin Qaim, 2016. "Sustainability Standards, Gender, and Nutrition among Smallholder Farmers in Uganda," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(9), pages 1241-1257, September.
    31. Jones, Andrew D. & Shrinivas, Aditya & Bezner-Kerr, Rachel, 2014. "Farm production diversity is associated with greater household dietary diversity in Malawi: Findings from nationally representative data," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 1-12.
    32. Sibhatu, Kibrom T. & Krishna, Vijesh V. & Qaim, Matin, 2015. "Farm Production Diversity and Dietary Diversity in Developing Countries," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205286, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    33. Handschuch, Christina & Wollni, Meike & Villalobos, Pablo, 2013. "Adoption of food safety and quality standards among Chilean raspberry producers – Do smallholders benefit?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 64-73.
    34. Fikadu Mitiku & Yann De Mey & Jan Nyssen & Miet Maertens, 2017. "Do Private Sustainability Standards Contribute to Income Growth and Poverty Alleviation? A Comparison of Different Coffee Certification Schemes in Ethiopia," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 9(2), pages 1-21, February.
    35. Mitiku, Fikadu & de Mey, Yann & Nyssen, Jan & Maertens, Miet, 2017. "Do Private Sustainability Standards Contribute to Poverty Alleviation? A Comparison of Different Coffee Certification Schemes in Ethiopia," Working Papers 253589, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
    36. Arnould, Eric & Plastina, Alejandro & Ball, Dwayne, 2009. "Does Fair Trade Deliver on Its Core Value Proposition? Effects on Income, Educational Attainment, and Health in Three Countries," Staff General Research Papers Archive 39169, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    37. Ruben, Ruerd & Fort, Ricardo, 2012. "The Impact of Fair Trade Certification for Coffee Farmers in Peru," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 570-582.
    38. van Rijsbergen, Bart & Elbers, Willem & Ruben, Ruerd & Njuguna, Samuel N., 2016. "The Ambivalent Impact of Coffee Certification on Farmers’ Welfare: A Matched Panel Approach for Cooperatives in Central Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 277-292.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Sirdey, Ninon & Lemeilleur, Sylvaine, 2021. "Can fair trade resolve the “hungry farmer paradox”?," Review of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Studies, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), vol. 102(1), March.
    2. Meemken, Eva-Marie, 2021. "Large farms, large benefits? Sustainability certification among family farms and agro-industrial producers in Peru," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 145(C).
    3. Aihounton, Ghislain & Henningsen, Arne, 2021. "Organic Farming and Food and Nutrition Security," 2021 Conference, August 17-31, 2021, Virtual 315413, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    4. Ghislain B. D. Aihounton & Arne Henningsen, 2023. "Does Organic Farming Jeopardize Food and Nutrition Security?," IFRO Working Paper 2023/02, University of Copenhagen, Department of Food and Resource Economics.
    5. Sellare, Jorge, 2020. "New insights on the use of the Fairtrade social premium," GlobalFood Discussion Papers 304709, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
    6. Edward Martey & Edward Ebo Onumah & Justina Adwoa Onumah & Dela‐Dem Doe Fiankor, 2024. "Non‐tariff measures and household welfare: Evidence from Ghana," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 36(2), pages 1150-1169, March.
    7. Sekabira, Haruna & Qaim, Matin, 2017. "Can mobile phones improve gender equality and nutrition? Panel data evidence from farm households in Uganda," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 95-103.
    8. Hörner, Denise & Wollni, Meike, 2021. "Integrated soil fertility management and household welfare in Ethiopia," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 100(C).
    9. Ogutu, Sylvester Ochieng & Qaim, Matin, 2019. "Commercialization of the small farm sector and multidimensional poverty," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 281-293.
    10. Sterie Cristina Maria & Ion Raluca Andreea, 2022. "Approaches to implementing fair trade practices for smallholder farmers," Proceedings of the International Conference on Business Excellence, Sciendo, vol. 16(1), pages 446-455, August.
    11. Jorge Sellare & Eva‐Marie Meemken & Christophe Kouamé & Matin Qaim, 2020. "Do Sustainability Standards Benefit Smallholder Farmers Also When Accounting For Cooperative Effects? Evidence from Côte d'Ivoire," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 102(2), pages 681-695, March.
    12. Kaiyatsa, Stevier & Matita, Mirriam & Chirwa, Ephraim & Mazalale, Jacob, 2020. "The groundnuts Fairtrade arrangement and its spillover effects on agricultural commercialization and household welfare outcomes: Empirical evidence from central Malawi," 2020 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, Kansas City, Missouri 304221, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    13. Sellare, Jorge, 2021. "The Fairtrade Social Premium and Its Implications for Rural Development," 2021 Conference, August 17-31, 2021, Virtual 315006, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    14. Zhang, Tong & Hu, Wuyang & Zhu, Zhanguo & Penn, Jerrod, 2023. "Consumer preference for food products addressing multiple dimensions of poverty: Evidence from China," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    15. Karla Rubio‐Jovel, 2023. "The voluntary sustainability standards and their contribution towards the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals: A systematic review on the coffee sector," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 35(6), pages 1013-1052, August.
    16. Knößlsdorfer, Isabel & Sellare, Jorge & Qaim, Matin, 2021. "Effects of Fairtrade on Farm Household Food Security and Living Standards," 2021 Conference, August 17-31, 2021, Virtual 315073, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    17. Sellare, Jorge & Meemken, Eva-Marie & Qaim, Matin, 2020. "Fairtrade, Agrochemical Input Use, and Effects on Human Health and the Environment," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 176(C).
    18. Hendrik Feyaerts & Goedele Van den Broeck & Miet Maertens, 2020. "Global and local food value chains in Africa: A review," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 51(1), pages 143-157, January.
    19. Iddrisu, Mubarak & Aidoo, Robert & Abawiera Wongnaa, Camillus, 2020. "Participation in UTZ-RA voluntary cocoa certification scheme and its impact on smallholder welfare: Evidence from Ghana," World Development Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 20(C).
    20. Marije Schaafsma & Ilda Dreoni & Lacour Mody Ayompe & Benis Egoh & Dewa Putu Ekayana & Arilson Favareto & Sonny Mumbunan & Louise Nakagawa & Jonas Ngouhouo‐poufoun & Marieke Sassen & Thiago Kanashiro , 2023. "A framework to understand the social impacts of agricultural trade," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(1), pages 138-150, February.
    21. Sylvester O. Ogutu & Matin Qaim, 2018. "Commercialization of the small farm sector and multidimensional poverty," GlobalFood Discussion Papers 269561, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Jorge Sellare & Eva‐Marie Meemken & Christophe Kouamé & Matin Qaim, 2020. "Do Sustainability Standards Benefit Smallholder Farmers Also When Accounting For Cooperative Effects? Evidence from Côte d'Ivoire," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 102(2), pages 681-695, March.
    2. Ninon Sirdey & Sylvaine Lemeilleur, 2021. "Can fair trade resolve the “hungry farmer paradox”?," Review of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Studies, Springer, vol. 102(1), pages 81-106, March.
    3. Giuliani, Elisa & Ciravegna, Luciano & Vezzulli, Andrea & Kilian, Bernard, 2017. "Decoupling Standards from Practice: The Impact of In-House Certifications on Coffee Farms’ Environmental and Social Conduct," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 294-314.
    4. Meemken, Eva-Marie & Qaim, Matin, 2017. "Can Private Food Standards Promote Gender Equality in the Small Farm Sector?," 2017 Annual Meeting, July 30-August 1, Chicago, Illinois 258088, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    5. Akoyi, K.T. & Mitiku, F. & Maertens, M., 2018. "Is prohibiting child labour enough? Coffee certification and child schooling in Ethiopia and Uganda," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 275958, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    6. Chiputwa, Brian & Qaim, Matin, 2014. "Sustainability standards, gender, and nutrition among smallholder farmers in Uganda," GlobalFood Discussion Papers 191001, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
    7. Fikadu Mitiku & Yann De Mey & Jan Nyssen & Miet Maertens, 2017. "Do Private Sustainability Standards Contribute to Income Growth and Poverty Alleviation? A Comparison of Different Coffee Certification Schemes in Ethiopia," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 9(2), pages 1-21, February.
    8. Mitiku, Fikadu & de Mey, Yann & Nyssen, Jan & Maertens, Miet, 2017. "Do Private Sustainability Standards Contribute to Poverty Alleviation? A Comparison of Different Coffee Certification Schemes in Ethiopia," Working Papers 253589, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
    9. Tran, Duc & Goto, Daisaku, 2019. "Impacts of sustainability certification on farm income: Evidence from small-scale specialty green tea farmers in Vietnam," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 70-82.
    10. AKOYI, Kevin Teopista & MAERTENS, Miet, 2016. "Private Sustainability Standards in the Ugandan Coffee Sector: Empty Promises or Catalysts for Development?," Working Papers 235004, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
    11. Chiputwa, Brian & Spielman, David J. & Qaim, Matin, 2015. "Food Standards, Certification, and Poverty among Coffee Farmers in Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 400-412.
    12. Meemken, Eva-Marie & Veettil, Prakashan Chellattan & Qaim, Matin, 2017. "Toward Improving the Design of Sustainability Standards—A Gendered Analysis of Farmers’ Preferences," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 285-298.
    13. Meemken, Eva-Marie, 2021. "Large farms, large benefits? Sustainability certification among family farms and agro-industrial producers in Peru," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 145(C).
    14. Oya, Carlos & Schaefer, Florian & Skalidou, Dafni, 2018. "The effectiveness of agricultural certification in developing countries: A systematic review," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 282-312.
    15. Giordano Ruggeri & Stefano Corsi, 2021. "An Exploratory Analysis of the FAIRTRADE Certified Producer Organisations," World, MDPI, vol. 2(4), pages 1-14, October.
    16. Ruifeng Liu & Zhifeng Gao & Rodolfo M. Nayga & Lijia Shi & Les Oxley & Hengyun Ma, 2020. "Can “green food” certification achieve both sustainable practices and economic benefits in a transitional economy? The case of kiwifruit growers in Henan Province, China," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 36(4), pages 675-692, October.
    17. Boonaert, Eva & Maertens, Miet, 2023. "Voluntary sustainability standards and farmer welfare: The pathways to success?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).
    18. Vincent Canwat, 2023. "Value chains and sustainable development: A perspective of sustainable coffee value chains in East Africa," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(2), pages 668-679, April.
    19. Ibanez, Marcela & Blackman, Allen, 2016. "Is Eco-Certification a Win–Win for Developing Country Agriculture? Organic Coffee Certification in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 14-27.
    20. van Rijsbergen, Bart & Elbers, Willem & Ruben, Ruerd & Njuguna, Samuel N., 2016. "The Ambivalent Impact of Coffee Certification on Farmers’ Welfare: A Matched Panel Approach for Cooperatives in Central Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 277-292.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Certification; Education; Food standards; Nutrition; Panel data; Welfare;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q01 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - Sustainable Development
    • Q12 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
    • Q13 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy; Animal Welfare Policy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jfpoli:v:71:y:2017:i:c:p:74-85. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/foodpol .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.