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A hierarchical procedure for the combination of forecasts

  • Costantini, Mauro
  • Pappalardo, Carmine

This paper proposes a strategy to increase the efficiency of forecast combination. Given the availability of a wide range of forecasts for the same variable of interest, our goal is to apply combining methods to a restricted set of models. With this aim, a hierarchical procedure based on an encompassing test is considered. First, forecasting models are ranked according to a measure of predictive accuracy (RMSFE). The models are then selected for combination such that each forecast is not encompassed by any of the competing forecasts. Thus the hierarchical procedure represents a compromise between model selection and model averaging. The robustness of the procedure is investigated in terms of the relative RMSFE using ISAE (Institute for Studies and Economic Analyses) short-term forecasting models for monthly industrial production in Italy.

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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal International Journal of Forecasting.

Volume (Year): 26 (2010)
Issue (Month): 4 (October)
Pages: 725-743

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Handle: RePEc:eee:intfor:v:26:y::i:4:p:725-743
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ijforecast

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  1. Francis X. Diebold & Robert S. Mariano, 1994. "Comparing Predictive Accuracy," NBER Technical Working Papers 0169, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Bruno Giancarlo & Lupi Claudio, 2001. "Forecasting Industrial Production and the Early Detection of Turning POints," ISAE Working Papers 20, ISTAT - Italian National Institute of Statistics - (Rome, ITALY).
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  4. Harvey, David I & Leybourne, Stephen J & Newbold, Paul, 1998. "Tests for Forecast Encompassing," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 16(2), pages 254-59, April.
  5. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2002. "Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(1), pages 191-221, January.
  6. Bańbura, Marta & Rünstler, Gerhard, 2011. "A look into the factor model black box: Publication lags and the role of hard and soft data in forecasting GDP," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 333-346.
  7. Mark W. Watson & James H. Stock, 2004. "Combination forecasts of output growth in a seven-country data set," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(6), pages 405-430.
  8. Hans-Martin Krolzig & David Hendry, 1999. "Computer Automation of General-to-Specific Model Selection Procedures," Computing in Economics and Finance 1999 314, Society for Computational Economics.
  9. Bodo, Giorgio & Signorini, Luigi Federico, 1987. "Short-term forecasting of the industrial production index," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 245-259.
  10. Turgut Kisinbay, 2007. "The Use of Encompassing Tests for Forecast Combinations," IMF Working Papers 07/264, International Monetary Fund.
  11. Harvey, David & Leybourne, Stephen & Newbold, Paul, 1997. "Testing the equality of prediction mean squared errors," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 281-291, June.
  12. Newbold, Paul & Zumwalt, J. Kenton & Kannan, Srinivasan, 1987. "Combining forecasts to improve earnings per share prediction : An examination of electric utilities," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 229-238.
  13. David F. Hendry & Michael P. Clements, 2004. "Pooling of forecasts," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 7(1), pages 1-31, 06.
  14. David Harvey & Paul Newbold, 2000. "Tests for multiple forecast encompassing," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(5), pages 471-482.
  15. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521632423 is not listed on IDEAS
  16. Neil R. Ericsson, 1991. "Parameter constancy, mean square forecast errors, and measuring forecast performance: an exposition, extensions, and illustration," International Finance Discussion Papers 412, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  17. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1998. "Diffusion Indexes," NBER Working Papers 6702, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Rünstler, Gerhard & Sédillot, Franck, 2003. "Short-term estimates of euro area real GDP by means of monthly data," Working Paper Series 0276, European Central Bank.
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